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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Gray Matter

Collections of neuron cell bodies and their associated neuroglia

White Matter

Bundles of parallel axons and their coverings


The anatomical crossing over of neurons from left to right

Vital Functions

Those functions of the body necessary for life


Connections of neuron axons that allow the two hemispheres of the brain to communicate with one another

What is hypoxia? Why is it dangerous to the nervous system?

Hypoxia is a condition in which the brain is not getting enough oxygen due to a poor blood supply. It is dangerous because it kills neurons, which cannot be replaced.

What is hypoglycemia? What can that do to the brain?

Hypoglycemia is a condition in which the glucose levels in your blood get too low. This affects the brain because the neurons need glucose. Without glucose, they cannot produce the energy they need to do their jobs. the person may lose mental sharpness, temporarily faint, or ultimately go into a coma.

Arrange the following structures from inferior to superior

(midbrain, hypothalamus, pons, medulla oblongata, thalamus)

Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, hypothalamus, thalamus

Which of these structures is a part of the brainstem?

Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain

Which of the structures is a part of the diencephalon?

Thalamus, hypothalamus

In which of the structures does most of the decussation of neurons take place?

Medulla oblongata

Which of the structures has nuclei that control many of the body's vital functions?

Medulla oblongata

Which of the structures have nuclei specifically dedicated to reflexes involving the senses of hearing and sight?


Which of the structures relays messages from the cerebrum to the cerebellum?


Which of the structures controls the pituitary gland?


Which of the structures performs a crude interpretation of sensory information and then relays that information to the cerebrum?


If you were to think of the cerebrum as a series of hills and valleys, would the gyri be the hills or the valleys? What about the sulci?

The gyri would be the hills, and the sulci would be the valleys.

Which major structure in the brain deals with the motor functions that we perform without consciously thinking of them?


What is the purpose of the corpus callosum? There are other structures in the brain and spinal cord that perform the same task. What is the general term that describes all of these structures?

The corpus callosum allows the two hemishperes of the brain to communicate with one another. The general term for such structures is commissures.

a. brain stem

b. temporal lobe

c. lateral fissure

d. frontal lobe

e. central sulcus

f. parietal lobe

g. occipital lobe

h. cerebellum

a. primary somatic sensory area--receives and localizes general sensations from the entire body

b. somatic sensory association area--interprets the sensory information and puts it into context with past experiences

c. visual association area--recognizes the meaning of visual information by putting it into context with past experiences

d. visual cortex--interprets the basic visual information such as shape, color, and size

e. Wernicke's area--comprehends speech

f. auditory association area--interprets the meaning of sound by placing it into context with past experiences

g. primary auditory area--interprets the basics of sound such as pitch and volume

h. Broca's area--initiates the muscle movements for speech

i. taste area--interprets taste

j. prefrontal area--site of motivation and foresight; regulates mood and emotion, inhibits impulsive behavior

k. premotor area--works out the sequence of neural signals needed for learned complex emotions

l. primary motor cortex--initiates basic skeletal muscle movements

a. dorsal root ganglion

b. afferent (sensory) neuron

c. efferent (motor) neuron

d. association neuron

e. ventral root

f. gray matter (ventral or anterior horn)

g. white matter (dorsal column)

What are the three neurons in a reflex arc, and in what order are they activated?

Afferent neuron, association neuron, and efferent neuron. They are activated in that order. First, the afferent neuron sends the sensory information to the spinal cord. The association neuron then routes the signal to the efferent neuron, and finally the efferent neuron stimulates the muscle to contract.

Where can you find the association neuron in the reflex arc?

In the spinal cord

Of the three neuron circuits we discussed in the previous module, which type of circuit is formed by the afferent neuron in the reflex arc?

Diverging circuit

Of the three neuron circuits we discussed in the previous module, which type of circuit is formed by the afferent neuron in the reflex arc?

Converging circuit

In the reflex arc, of which kind of circuit is the efferent neuron a part?

Converging circuit

Where is the majority of cerebrospinal fluid produced?

In the lateral ventricles

Where is the rest of cerebrospinal fluid produced?

In the third and fourth ventricles

What is the purpose of cerebrospinal fluid?

To cushion and protect the brain

What are the three layers that protect the brain?

The dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. Collectively, they are called the meninges

What are arachnoid granulations?

Arachnoid granulations are extensions of arachnoid mater, which return CSF into the superior sagittal sinus so that it returns to the blood within the sinus