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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Gross Anatomy

The study of the macroscopic structures of an organism

Microscopic Anatomy

The study of the microscopic structures of an organism


The study of the functions of an organism and its parts


The study of tissues


A group of tissues specialized for a particular function


Groups of cells forming various building materials of the body


A state of dynamic equilibrium in the body with respect to its internal environment and functions


A structure in the body that can change the value of a variable in response to a signal from the control center

Selective Permeability

The ability to let certain materials in or out while restricting others


The process by which large molecules are taken into the cell


Transportation of material from inside the cell to outside the cell using vesicles; also called secretion

Set Point

Ideal normal value of a variable around which homeostasis is maintained through a normal range of values that are acceptable to the body


A factor that causes one or more physiological variables to move away from its homeostatic set point

Control Center

The part of the body, either central nervous system or endocrine gland, that receives information about a variable, determines the set point, and signals a response to correct imbalances


A structure in the body that monitors the values of your body's variables

Negative-Feedback System

A control mechanism consisting of receptors, control center, and effectors through which homeostasis in the body is maintained by regulation of the body's organ systems. It is called negative feedback because the control system opposes or reverses the original stress

If this course taught you only the name of each organ and where it is in the body, would this be an anatomy course or a physiology course?

This would be an anatomy course, because anatomy is the study of the structure of the body and all its parts, while physiology is the study of how those parts function and work together

What are the seven levels of organization in a living organism?

Whole organism, organ systems, organs, tissues, cells, organelles, and molecules.

Suppose you are using a 40x, 100x, 400x, and 1000x microscope to study the human body. What levels of organization would you be studying?

You would be studying tissues, cells, and organelles.

What are the four types of tissues?

Nervous, muscle, epithelial, and connective tissue.

Identify the type of tissue that makes up the following...

a. The lining of a blood vessel or your sinuses

b. The trapezius muscle

c. The cartilage in your joints

d. The frontal lobe of the brain

a. Epithelial

b. Muscle

c. Connective

d. Nervous

What is the general term for the processes in the environment that threaten homeostasis?


Suppose your heart rate began to increase significantly. If the body initiated a negative-feedback response, would your heart rate go up or down? If the body initiated a positive-feedback response, would your heart rate go up or down?

Negative feedback--heart rate would go down

Positive feedback--heart rate would go up

What two organ systems are most involved in controlling the negative-feedback systems of the body?

The endocrine and nervous systems

When you exercise, your blood glucose levels tend to drop because you are using the glucose for energy. To counteract that effect, the pancreas monitors your blood glucose level. if the pancreas "decides" that the blood glucose level is too low, it can release a hormone called glucagon. This hormone stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood.

a. What is the stress?

b. What is the control center?

c. What is the effector?

d. Is the endocrine system involved?

a. Blood glucose level is too low

b. Pancreas

c. The liver

d. Yes

List the organelles discussed in module 1, and briefly state the main function of each.

~Plasma Membrane--holds the cell together, boundary of the cell, controls entry and exit of substances.

~Nucleus--Contains DNA and is the cell's control center

~ Smooth ER--intracellular transport of lipids and carbohydrates, synthesis

~Rough ER--synthesis, intracellular transport of proteins

~Golgi apparatuses-- "package" chemicals for secretion

~Secretory vesicles--secretion

~Lysosome--breaks down lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.

~Centrioles--spindle formation for mitosis and meiosis

~ Ribosomes--synthesize proteins

~ Cilia--movement of molecules over the cell's surface

List the phases of mitosis in order.

Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.

In which phases of mitosis do chromosomes have the X shape most people associate with chromosomes?

Prophase and metaphase

What property of phospholipids gives the plasma membrane the ability to automatically reassemble?

Phospholipids have a polar head and a nonpolar tail

What is the function of the glycoprotein in the plasma membrane?

Glycoproteins act as markers, allowing cells to recognize each other. (identification)

What is the function of a receptor protein in the plasma membrane?

Receptor proteins receive messages from other cells.

The model of the plasma membrane that we discussed is the fluid mosaic model. What is the "fluid?" What is the "mosaic?"

The fluid is the phospholipid bilayer, and the mosiac refers to the fact that there are many different kinds of chemicals floating within the phospholipid bilayer, especially proteins.

There are essentially four basic ways a substance can get through the plasma membrane. What are they?

A substance can dissolve through the phospholipids, it can enter through a channel protein, it can enter using a carrier protein, or it can enter through endocytosis.

For each of the following substances, indicate how they will get through the plasma membrane and into the cell. In this case, consider channel proteins and charged channel proteins to be different, and use the two more precise terms for endocytosis.

a. channel protein

b. pinocytosis

c. charged channel protein

d. carrier protein

e. phagocytosis

f. dissolve through the phospholipids

A protein enters a cell. The outside of the cell has a higher concentration of that protein than the inside of the cell. Did the protein enter through active transport or a passive transport process?

Active transport because of the size of the protein.

A glucose molecule enters a cell. The concentration of glucose inside the cell is lower than the concentration of glucose outside the cell. Did the cell use ATP to get the glucose inside?

No, because the glucose moved according the the dictates of diffusion.