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42 Cards in this Set

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Neurons of the hypothalamus that secrete neurohormones rather than neurotransmitters.
Biologically active lipids that produce many effects in the body, including smooth muscle contraction, inflammation, and blood clotting.

Compare the nervous and endrocrine systems in terms of:
a. speed of response
b. duration of influence
c. effectors controlled
d. strength of the signal
e. ability to be repaired

a. quick response
b. brief duration of influence
c. controls muscles and glands
d. signal strength is determined by the frequency of the signal
e. usually irrepairable

a. slow response
b. long duration of influence
c. controls almost all the cells in the body
d. signal strength is determined by the amount of hormone released and the number of receptors in the target cells
e. repairable

Under what conditions would a hormone need a carrier protein?

Hormones must be carried in the blood. If the hormone cannot dissolve in water, it will need a carrier protein in order to be transported by the blood, which is water based.

a. hypothalamus
b. pituitary gland
c. thyroid gland
d. adrenal glands
e. ovaries in females
f. pineal body
g. parathyroids
h. thymus
i. pancreas
j. testes in males

What two ways are hormones eliminated from the body?

Hormones are eliminated by the kidneys in the urine and by the liver in the feces


Growth Releasing Hormone: Hypothalamus: Increases the release of GH from the anterior pituitary


Corticotropin Releasing Hormone: Hypothalamus: Increases the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary


Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone: Hypothalamus: Increases the release of TSH from the anterior pituitary


Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone: Hypothalamus: Decreases the release of PRL from the anterior pituitary


Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone: Hypothalamus: Increases the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary


Growth Hormone: Anterior Pituitary: Increases growth in most tissues


Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: Anterior Pituitary: Increases the release of thyroxine from the thyroid gland


Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: Anterior Pituitary: Increases the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex


Luteinizing Hormone: Anterior Pituitary: Stimulates ovaries or testes


Follicle Stimulating Hormone: Anterior Pituitary: Stimulates ovaries or testes


Prolactin: Anterior Pituitary: Stimulates milk production in the breasts


Increases the synthesis of melanin in melanocytes


Antidiuretic Hormone: Posterior Pituitary: Increases the retention of water by the kidneys


Oxytocin: Posterior Pituitary: Increases the contractions of the uterus during birth and promotes the release of breast milk


Thyroxine: Thyroid: Increases the metabolic rate of most cells


Thyroid: Lowers blood calcium levels


Parathyroid Hormone: Parathyroid: Increases blood calcium levels


Epinephrine: Adrenal Medulla: Increases sympathetic response


Norepinphrine: Adrenal Medulla: Increases sympathetic response


Adrenal Cortex: Increases protein and fat break-down in most tissues


Adrenal Cortex: Increases the retention of sodium and water by the kidneys


Pancreas: Lowers blood glucose by stimulating cells to take in glucose


Pancreas: Raises blood glucose by causing liver to release glucose


Ovaries: Reproductive hormone in females


Ovaries: Reproductive hormone in females


Testes: Reproductive hormone in males


Pineal Body: Affects release of GnRH by hypothalamus; affects day/night sleep cycles


Thymus: Develops immune functions

What are the three basic types of hormones?

Amine, steroid, and protein/peptide

Which stimulate membrane-bound receptors only?

The peptide/proteins stimulate membrane-bound receptors since they are water-soluble and too big to get into the cell. Most amines stimulate membrane-bound receptors since they are water-soluble and slightly too big to enter cells. Thyroxine is an amine that is an exception; it binds to nuclear receptors.

Which stimulate nuclear receptors only?

Steroid hormones stimulate nuclear receptors only, because they are lipid-soluble and can diffuse right through the cell membrane.

List three ways that secretion of hormones is controlled. Briefly describe each one.

1. Nonhormonal control: The level of a chemical other than a hormone affects the endocrine glands. Variations of that chemical's level will stimulate or inhibit hormone secretion.

2. Direct neural control: The nervous system innervates the gland with neurons. Those neurons secrete neurotransmitters to stimulate the gland to secrete the hormone, or the neurons secrete the hormone directly as a neurohormone.

3. Hormonal control: One gland releases a hormone which stimulates another gland to release a different hormone.

The level of a particular hormone in the body varies widely. Although it varies, the level can be predicted based on the time of day that it is measure. Which pattern of secretion is this?

Since the hormone appears in a repeating pattern that can be predicted, it is not acute response. Since the variation is wide, it is not constant secretion. This must by cyclic secretion.

A hormone interacts with a receptor, stimulating the cell to synthesize and secrete a new protein. Is the receptor a nuclear receptor or membrane-bound?

This is a nuclear receptor. If the protein has to be made, the receptor must have activated a gene in the nucleus.

A target cell for a particular hormone seems to respond more strongly than it did in the past. List two ways that this could occur.

Either the amount of hormone has increased or the target cell has made more receptors for this hormone.

If a person has a painful, bleeding injury to the nose, should aspirin be given to help? Why or why not?

No--aspirin decreases prostaglandins, especially the "bad" ones that increase inflammation and blood clotting. The aspirin will decrease the pain, which is inflammation, but it will also decrease blood clotting. That's not what we want if the injury keeps bleeding.