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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Exocrine Glands

Glands that secrete substances outward through a duct

Endocrine Glands

Ductless glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

Merocrine Glands

Exocrine glands that secrete without losing cellular material

Apocrine Glands

Exocrine glands that have cytoplasm in their secretions

Holocrine Glands

Exocrine glands that have secretions made up of disintegrated cells

Extracellular Matrix

The chemical substances located between connective tissue cells


Spindle-shaped cells that form connective tissue proper


Mature cartilage cells

Stromal Cells

"Supporting" cells that provide structure or support for parenchymal cells

Parenchymal Cells

"Performance" cells that provide the actual function of the tissue

Labile Cells

Cells that undergo mitosis regularly and quickly

Stable Cells

Cells that do not regularly undergo mitosis but are able to if the need arises

Permanent Cells

Cells that cannot undergo mitosis

What are the four basic types of tissue?

Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous

What two factors determine the distance from the free surface to the basal surface in epithelial tissue?

The number of layers and the shape of the cells that make up those layers.

What is the basement membrane?

The "glue" which attaches the basal membrane to underlying tissue.

Is the basement membrane vascular or avascular? How do epithelial cells get oxygen and nutrients?

The basement membrane is avascular. The tissue to which the basement membrane is attached has blood vessels, and these vessels release oxygen and nutrients, which then diffuse across the basement membrane and into the cells.

Identify the following tissues, give the tissue's main function and at least one place it can be found in the body.

Simple Squamous Epithelium

Function: to allow for diffusion--provides a minimal barrier through which diffusion of oxygen and nutrients can occur.

Location: lining of blood vessels, tiny air sacs of the lungs.

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Function: forms a barrier

Location: skin

Simple Columnar Epithelium

Function: performs more complex secretion and absorption tasks. Contains goblet cells that produce mucus. Protection.

Location: lining of stomach and intestines

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Function: allows diffusion, absorption, and secretion

Location: kidneys

Stratified Transitional Epithelium

Function: changeable--able to stretch--protection

Location: urinary bladder

Pseudostratified Epithelium

Function: to produce and move mucus

Location: airways of the lungs

Which kind of exocrine gland has no cytoplasm in its secretions?

Merocrine Glands

What are the four types of connective tissue?

Connective tissue proper, cartilage, blood, and bone.

What protein is found in all connective tissue proper?


Identify the connective tissue proper by the sketch of its microscope structure. Give its function and one place in the body where it is found.

Dense Regular Connective Tissue

Function: strong binding, tensile strength

Location: ligaments, tendons

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

Function: gives strength in all directions

Location: lower layer of the skin (dermis)

Loose Connective Tissue

Function: light-duty binding

Location: under the skin


Adipose Tissue

Function: support, protection, insulation, bracing of organs

Location: under the skin, mammary glands, around the kidneys

Why do chondrocytes need a lacuna?

Because cartilage matrix is firm, so the cells cannot live directly in the matrix.


Function: provides tough binding and resilient support.

Location: joints of the backbone.

Hyaline Cartilage

Function: firmness with resilience

Location: the bridge of your nose, framework of your larynx, the caps on the bones of joints, and the cartilage of the ribs

Elastic Cartilage

Function: highly flexible support.

Location: outer ear, very tip of the nose.

Where, in general, will you find serous membranes? What do these membranes accomplish?

Serous membranes are found in double layers around organs. They secrete a small amount of lubricating fluid into the space between the layers, thus reducing friction between organs.

Where will you find mucous membranes? What do these membranes accomplish?

Mucous membranes are found lining the entire digestive tract from the mouth to the anus, as well as the respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts (these tracts are all open to the outside of the body). The function of mucous membranes is to line tubes that open to the outside of the body, thus protecting the body.

Where will you find synovial membranes? What do these membranes accomplish?

Found around the movable joints, used for lubricating.

An organ's parenchymal cells are labile. If the organ is damaged, will it be as good as new once it heals?

Yes, it will just take a long time.

In general, are connective tissue cells parenchymal or stromal?

Connective tissue cells are generally stromal.