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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What are the three parts of the cardiovascular system?

Composed of three parts:
-Blood vessels

-Heart pumps blood into arteries that are connected to veins via capillaries

-Arteries carry blood away from the heart

-Veins carry blood to the heart
What is the lymphatic system?
-Plasma can leave the blood vessels and circulate in the interstitial space (space between tissue cells).

-Plasma collects metabolic product and carries them to the lymphatic system (it can also pick up the microbes and disseminate the infection).

-When inside the lymphatic system, plasma is called – lymph.
True or false.

Blood is normally sterile
What is Endocarditis.
-Involves inflammation of endocardium and heart valves

-Endocardium- the inner layer of heart muscle
List and describe the conditions of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system.
Bacteremia – presence of bacteria in the blood

-Septicemia – microorganisms are actively multiplying in the blood

-Septic shock- condition in which gr- bacteria release the endotoxin (can be caused by antibiotic treatment)

-Lymphangitis – infection and inflammation of the lymphatic vessels
What are the two types of Endocarditis?
-Two types of endocarditis
Describe acute bacterial endocarditis.
Acute Bacterial Endocarditis

-Staphylococcus aureus is transferred from original infection site to the heart (traumatic injury or surgical procedure)

-Colonize heart valves (vegetations)

– cardiac malfunction

-It causes a rapid destruction of heart valves

-If untreated, can be fatal within a few days
Describe subacute bacterial endocarditis.
Subactue bacterial endocarditis

-The disease develops slowly

-Bacteria grow on preexisting lesions

-If not treated, the disease is fatal within a few months

-Caused by a-hemolytic streptococci

-The microorganisms enter the blood during the tooth extraction or tonsillectomy. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment
What causes the plague ( black death)?
Caused by Yersinia pestis – Gr- rod shaped bacteria
Describe the plague.
-Caused by Yersinia pestis – Gr- rod shaped bacteria

-Normally infects rats (other rodents)

-Transmitted by rat flea and airborne droplets

-Bacterium enters the blood and lymph where it proliferates

-Symptoms: enlargement of lymph nodes in armpit and groins – buboes – bubonic plague. Mortality 50-75%
Describe Bubonic plague
-characterized by enlarged inflamed lymph nodes called buboes
Describe Pneumonic plague
occurs when the bacterium spreads to the lungs- mortality 100%

-Treatment: streptomycin, tetracycline.

-Vaccine is available

*Prevention: through rodent and flea control and good personal hygiene
What causes Lyme disease?
The causative agent is Borrelia burgdorferi – a spirochete
What are the three phases of Lyme disease?
Expanding red rash that often resembles a bull’s eye
-Flu-like symptoms, antibiotics effective

Neurological symptoms
-Heart is effected, facial paralysis, meningitis

Severe arthritis:
-Months or years later
How is Lyme disease transmitted?
-The vector is the deer tick of the genus lxodes

-Involves two hosts: white tailed deer and white footed mouse

-The larva feeds on white-footed mouse – picks up the bacteria

-The adult tick lives on deer
What is the prevention and treatment of Lyme disease?
-Prevention: protective clothing

-Treatment: Doxycyclin, penicillin
what causes Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono)?
-Caused by EB (Epstein-Barr) virus

-The virus multiplies in the lymph glands
Describe Mono.
-Caused by EB (Epstein-Barr) virus

-The virus multiplies in the lymph glands

-Transmission: Saliva (kissing), drinking vessels

-Symptoms: swelling of lymph nodes and spleen, proliferation of special type of lymphocytes, rupture(rapture?) of spleen possible

-Recovery in a few weeks

-Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms
what causes yellow fever?
Caused by Arbovirus, transmitted by mosquitos (Aedes aegypti)
describe yellow fever.
-Caused by Arbovirus, transmitted by mosquitos (Aedes aegypti)

-Limited to the tropical areas of Central and South America and Africa. Monkey serve as reservoir

-Symptoms: fever, nausea, vomiting

-Yellowing of the skin as result of liver damage

-Action: Control of mosquito population
describe Ebolia Virus
Ebolia Virus appeared in Africa

-Reservoir probably in fruit bats

-The infection spread by blood and body fluids

-The virus lives in the bloodstream – causes capillary fragility

-Massive internal and external bleeding

-Mortality rate: between 25-100%
what causes Brucellosis and how is it transmitted?
-Caused by Brucella- small, Gr- rod-like bacterium

-Found in cattle, pigs, goats, and camels

-Transmitted to humans by unpasteurized milk, by contact with diseased animal
Describe how Brucellosis affects the body.
-The bacterium enters the human body through minute abrasions of the skin or mucous membrane

-Multiplies inside the macrophage, travels through lymphatic system to lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and bone marrow
Symptom: chills and fever that spikes each evening
what is the treatment for brucellosis?
-Treatment: tetracycline and streptomycine
what causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and how is transmitted?
-Caused by bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii

-Transmitted by ticks
describe rocky mountrain spotted fever.
-In the US first detected in Rocky Mountains – Montana

-Most frequent in the Southeast

-Symptoms: fever, chills, headaches, muscular pain, spotted rash, hypotension, bleeding

-Skin lesion merge, may become necrotic – gangrene

-Treatment: doxocycline
what causes malaria?
-Causative agent: protozoan – Plasmodium

-Four plasmodium species cause malaria
-P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae

-Disease severity depends on the species
what are the sings and symptoms of malaria?
-Cyclic symptoms that correlate with the parasite’s life cycle: Fever and chills recur every two to three days as erythrocytes lyse

-Other symptoms include anemia, fatigue, and jaundice
how is malaria diagnosed?
-Blood smear – presence of trophozoites or other Plasmodium stages
what is the prevention and treatment of malaria?
-Standard drug is chloroquine except with drug resistant cases
-Usually effective except in severe falciparum cases

-Limiting contact with mosquitoes
-Used of insecticides
How is malaria transmitted?
-Spread by female mosquito – Anopheles

-Sporozoits – asexual phase of plasmodium is injected in to human’s bloodstream

-Invade liver cells – develop into merozoits

-Enter erythrocytes – burst out

-Ingested by another mosquito
what causes Anthrax?
Bacillus anthracis
what is the treatment of anthrax?
Doxycyline, ciprofloxacin and penicillin
Why is HIV different than AIDS?
-HIV – a causative agent

-AIDS – denotes a final stage of infection
what are the subtypes of HIV?
Subtypes of HIV

HIV-1 has 11 clades mostly in the Western World (clades are a subversion of a virus)

HIV-2 in Western Africa
What does HIV affect
-Virus specifically infects T-cells (types of white blood cells)
what are the components of HIV?
-HIV is a retrovirus, its components are:

-Two strands of RNA

-The enzyme reverse transcriptase
Envelope – lipoprotein with spikes –gp120
explain HIV reproduction.
HIV reproduction

-Virus enters through the mucus membrane

-Glycoprotein spikes (gp120) on the virus surface recognize the CD4 receptors on the T cell surface

-Co-receptors are also required (chemokin-CCR5)

-Virus penetrates the T cell

-After uncoating, the reverse transcriptase produces double-stranded DNA

-This DNA is now incorporated into host DNA (provirus) – remains latent

-Reactivated provirus produces viral mRNA

-Synthesis of coat proteins, mature virus is released by budding

-New virus particle may not be released – latent virion
what are the stages of HIV infection?
-Category A- Swollen lymph nodes are the only symptoms

-Category B- Yeast infection of mouth, throat, or vagina

-Category C – All symptoms of AIDS- yeast infection, tuberculosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma *a form of skin cancer*
what is an indicator for AIDS progression?
-The number of T cells is an indicator of AIDS progression

-Normal number of T cells =800-1000/mm(third power)

-Below 200/mm3(to the third power) – AIDS

-About 5% of infected persons do not develop symptoms of AIDS (less virulent virus strain or T cells more effective, deletion in CCR5)