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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The cardiovascular System:


Blood Vessels


Lymph nodes, spleen, "MALT"



---Macrophage, T, B, NK, lymphocytes

The blood:

Carries O2, CO2, nutrients, cells, plasma

Infectious agents in the blood


bacteria in the blood


Virus in the blood


growth of bacteria in blood

Septic Shock:

-->endotoxin (LPS) release

-->macrophage cytokines

-->low blood pressure (leaky capillaries)

-->high fever

Cardiovascular system defenses


-Antimicrobial proteins in lysosomes of phagocytic cells

-Neutrophils, antibodies, complement

-Filtering function of Lymph Nodes

-No normal flora

-Transient flora?

-Infectious agents in blood

=systemic infection

Selected bacterial infections of the blood


-Yersina pestis

Lyme Disease

-Borrelia burgdorferi


-Franscisella tularensis

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pestis

-Cause of PLAGUE

-Gram negative rod

-Grows in digestive tract of flea = VECTOR

-RESERVOIR are rodents, prairie dogs

-Endemic above 4,000 ft elevation in Arizona and around 4 corners

Plague pandemic

-Black Death


* some recurrent outbreaks up until 1668

-Reduced Europe's population by about half

-100 million people

-In some towns - 100% mortality

Plague types - historical

Bubonic plague

Pneumonic plague

Septicemic plague

Bubonic plague:

-Most common

-up to 80% mortality rate in 8 days

Pneumonic plague

-In the lungs

-90-95% mortality rate in 8 days

Septicemic plague:

-In the blood

-Near 100% mortality rate often the first day of symptoms

Plague treatment today:

Bubonic plague:

1-5% mortality (50% untreated)

Pneumonic plague:

5-15% mortality if treated early (almost 100% fatal if not treated)

Septicemic plague

-50% mortality

-Still no GOOD treatment

Bubonic plague

Bubonic plague

-Transmitted by flea bite

-Y.pestis enters blood and grown in macrophages in lymph nodes

-Swollen lymph nodes are buboes

Lyme Disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi*

Lyme Disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi*

-Spirochetes are very narrow spiral-shaped bacteria

-Gram negative


Lyme disease vectors:

Tick vector bites reservoir (deer, mouse) and becomes infected; transmits disease to humans through bites.

Lyme disease

Lyme disease

-Primary stage

-Bulls-eye rash on skin

-Secondary stage

-Neurological symptoms

-Cardiac dysfunction

-Tertiary stage

Lyme arthritis

-inflammation of large joints

- Paraplegia

Lyme arthritis

-Immune system Type III hypersensitivity to

-->persisting antigen

-->antigen-antibody complexes

-->inflammation, tissue damage by neutrophils

-Treated with long course antibiotics

Francisella tularensis

Francisella tularensis

- cause of Tularemia

-Rabbit fever

-Gram negative coccobacillus

-Reservoir are rabbits and small animals

-Vector are ticks

-Ingestion of contaminated meat also a cause


-Symptoms include:





-Difficulty breathing

-Skin ulcer at the site of bite

~As little as 10 organisms are infectious

Some virus infections of the cardiovascular system:

Viral hemorrhagic fevers

--Yellow fever, Dengue Fever, Ebola


Viral Hemorrhagic fevers:

Yellow fever reservoir and location:

Reservoir: Aedes agypti

Location: Central Africa, S.America

Dengue fever:

Reservoir: Aedes agypti

Location: World-wide, Tropical


Reservoir: Fruit bat?

Location: Central America

Viral Hemorrhagic fevers:

*Capillary fragility and leakage

*Disruption of the blood clotting system

Bleeding, Hemorrhage

*Liver damage, Hepatitis

*High Fatality rate

-Up to 90% for Ebola

Yellow fever:

-Yellow fever virus

-Flu-like symptoms

can be hemorrhagic

-Yellow virus worldwide

about 200,000 infected per year (low reporting?)

15% mortality rate

-Outbreak in USA 1905 along Mississippi River

20,000 deaths

Dengue fever:

-Dengue virus

-Measles-like symptoms

Plus hemorrhaging if hemorrhagic fever

-Dengue fever in Americas 2007

About 900,000 cases total

26,000 were DHF

-20% mortality if untreated, 2.5% if treated


-Ebola virus

-Model for the movie "Outbreak"

-Proposed lifecycle

Fruit bats carry virus

Drop saliva tainted fruit which is eaten by apes

Humans hunt and eat infected apes

Get disease

-First found in 1976 (emerging disease)

-People die of hypovolemic shock

loss of blood volume

-80-90% mortality

-Few outbreaks keep check

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

-Blood-Borne Viral and STD infection

-Infects helper T lymphocytes (CD4+)

-Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

-Long (Latent) incubation period

HIV has specific glycoprotein receptors that bind to CD receptors of T cells

Sources and routes of infection by HIV:

Direct blood exposure during sex

Semen,, vaginal fluid exposure

Infected macrophage

HIV Treatment:

Nucleoside analogs (AZT) and protease inhibitors are effective therapies used to treat HIV infections