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35 Cards in this Set

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The cardiovascular System:

Heart


Blood Vessels


Lymphatics


Lymph nodes, spleen, "MALT"


RBS


WBC


---Macrophage, T, B, NK, lymphocytes

The blood:

Carries O2, CO2, nutrients, cells, plasma



Infectious agents in the blood


-Bacteremia:

bacteria in the blood

Viremia:

Virus in the blood

Septicemia:

growth of bacteria in blood

Septic Shock:

-->endotoxin (LPS) release


-->macrophage cytokines


-->low blood pressure (leaky capillaries)


-->high fever

Cardiovascular system defenses


-Defensins:

-Antimicrobial proteins in lysosomes of phagocytic cells

-Neutrophils, antibodies, complement


-Filtering function of Lymph Nodes


-No normal flora


-Transient flora?


-Infectious agents in blood



=systemic infection

Selected bacterial infections of the blood

Plague

-Yersina pestis


Lyme Disease


-Borrelia burgdorferi


Tularemia


-Franscisella tularensis


Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pestis

-Cause of PLAGUE


-Gram negative rod


-Grows in digestive tract of flea = VECTOR


-RESERVOIR are rodents, prairie dogs


-Endemic above 4,000 ft elevation in Arizona and around 4 corners

Plague pandemic

-Black Death


-1348-1350


* some recurrent outbreaks up until 1668


-Reduced Europe's population by about half


-100 million people


-In some towns - 100% mortality

Plague types - historical

Bubonic plague

Pneumonic plague


Septicemic plague


Bubonic plague:

-Most common

-up to 80% mortality rate in 8 days


Pneumonic plague




-In the lungs


-90-95% mortality rate in 8 days

Septicemic plague:

-In the blood


-Near 100% mortality rate often the first day of symptoms

Plague treatment today:


Bubonic plague:

1-5% mortality (50% untreated)

Pneumonic plague:

5-15% mortality if treated early (almost 100% fatal if not treated)

Septicemic plague



-50% mortality

-Still no GOOD treatment

Bubonic plague

Bubonic plague

-Transmitted by flea bite


-Y.pestis enters blood and grown in macrophages in lymph nodes


-Swollen lymph nodes are buboes

Lyme Disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi*

Lyme Disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi*

-Spirochetes are very narrow spiral-shaped bacteria


-Gram negative


-Motile

Lyme disease vectors:

Tick vector bites reservoir (deer, mouse) and becomes infected; transmits disease to humans through bites.

Lyme disease

Lyme disease

-Primary stage


-Bulls-eye rash on skin


-Secondary stage


-Neurological symptoms


-Cardiac dysfunction


-Tertiary stage


Lyme arthritis


-inflammation of large joints


- Paraplegia

Lyme arthritis

-Immune system Type III hypersensitivity to


-->persisting antigen


-->antigen-antibody complexes


-->inflammation, tissue damage by neutrophils


-Treated with long course antibiotics

Francisella tularensis

Francisella tularensis

- cause of Tularemia


-Rabbit fever


-Gram negative coccobacillus


-Reservoir are rabbits and small animals


-Vector are ticks


-Ingestion of contaminated meat also a cause

Tularemia

-Symptoms include:


-Fever


-Diarrhea


-Pain


-Fatigue


-Difficulty breathing


-Skin ulcer at the site of bite


~As little as 10 organisms are infectious

Some virus infections of the cardiovascular system:



Viral hemorrhagic fevers


--Yellow fever, Dengue Fever, Ebola


--HIV

Viral Hemorrhagic fevers:


Yellow fever reservoir and location:

Reservoir: Aedes agypti


Location: Central Africa, S.America

Dengue fever:

Reservoir: Aedes agypti


Location: World-wide, Tropical

Ebola:

Reservoir: Fruit bat?


Location: Central America

Viral Hemorrhagic fevers:

*Capillary fragility and leakage


*Disruption of the blood clotting system


Bleeding, Hemorrhage


*Liver damage, Hepatitis


*High Fatality rate


-Up to 90% for Ebola

Yellow fever:

-Yellow fever virus


-Flu-like symptoms


can be hemorrhagic


-Yellow virus worldwide


about 200,000 infected per year (low reporting?)


15% mortality rate


-Outbreak in USA 1905 along Mississippi River


20,000 deaths

Dengue fever:





-Dengue virus

-Measles-like symptoms


Plus hemorrhaging if hemorrhagic fever


-Dengue fever in Americas 2007


About 900,000 cases total


26,000 were DHF


-20% mortality if untreated, 2.5% if treated

Ebola:

-Ebola virus


-Model for the movie "Outbreak"


-Proposed lifecycle


Fruit bats carry virus


Drop saliva tainted fruit which is eaten by apes


Humans hunt and eat infected apes


Get disease


-First found in 1976 (emerging disease)


-People die of hypovolemic shock


loss of blood volume


-80-90% mortality


-Few outbreaks keep check

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

-Blood-Borne Viral and STD infection


-Infects helper T lymphocytes (CD4+)


-Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome


-Long (Latent) incubation period

HIV has specific glycoprotein receptors that bind to CD receptors of T cells

Sources and routes of infection by HIV:


Direct blood exposure during sex


Semen,, vaginal fluid exposure


Infected macrophage

HIV Treatment:

Nucleoside analogs (AZT) and protease inhibitors are effective therapies used to treat HIV infections