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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Natural defenses of the Nervous System:

-Skull and vertebrae

-Microglial cells and macrophages

-Restricted entry into brain (BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER) for:

~ microorganisms

~medications, including most antibiotics

~immune system

Nervous System Diseases

Both bacteria and viruses and parasites can cause:

-Meningitis: inflammation of the meninges= membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord

-Encephalitis: inflammation of the brain

Nervous System Diseases:






Bacterial Meningitis "HSN"

-Haemophilus influenzae

- Streptococcus pneumoniae

-Neisseria meningitidis

Haemophilus influenzae:

type b

-infants, newborn

-also, E.coli, streptococcus agalactiae=group B strep)

Streptococcus pneumoniae:

-Children 1 month- 4 years

- Elderly

Neisseria meningitides:

College students

Streptococcal Meningitis

Streptococcal Meningitis

Streptococcus pneumoniae


-Virulent strains are ENCAPSULATED

-Children age 1 month -4 years



Meningococcal Meningitis in College Students:

Neisseria meningitidis

-Enters through nasal cavity (droplets)

-Incidence=2,500 Americans/year

---10-15% die, up to 20% long-term disabilities

-Subunit vaccine: induces OPSONIZING antibody to capsule

Naegleria Meningoencephalitis
A rare infection
"Brain-Eating Amoeba"

Naegleria Meningoencephalitis

A rare infection

"Brain-Eating Amoeba"

-Naegieria fowleri

-Small-free living amoeba

-Found in fresh water

-can be normal flora

-Protozoan feeds on bacteria but if introduced into the CNS can feed on human tissue

Naegleria Meningoencephalitis specs:

-acquired from hot tubs, warm ponds and ground water at high temperature

-children and young adults

-initially infects the nasal mucosa

-abrupt onset of symptoms 3 to 10 days after exposure to water

---Sever headache, fever, stiff neck, dementia and coma

Naegleria Meningoencephalitis damage to humans:

-Destroys brain and spinal tissue

-death occurs within 10 days of the onset of clinical signs


-Chlorine kills the organism in spas and pools

-Mortality rate of > 95%



--Toxoplasma gondii

--flagellated protozoan parasite

--infects over 200 species of bird and animals


- infection usually handled by immune system

How is Toxoplasmosis acquired?

From contaminated meat or ingestion of oocysts in cat feces

*** causes serious disease in developing fetus

--liver damage

--brain abnormalities


-Serious disease in people with AIDS

* Prevention: no raw meat, no contact with cat litter

Hansen's Disease: Leprosy

Hansen's Disease: Leprosy

--- Mycobacterium leprae

* Disease of skin and nerves

* Change of pigmentation, loss of sensation

* Slow progressing

* Transmits poorly

* Droplet or skin contact

Mycobacterium leprae:

**** Causative Agent of Hansen's Disease:Leprosy***

-Acid fast bacterium

-slow growth

-strict parasite

-multiplies in macrophages

-prefers cool areas of body

-long course, drug cocktail



-Viral infection from bite of a "furious" rabid animal:

*Animal rabies: Wandering, aggress, biting, salivating

-Virus travels from the bite to the brain, via nerves

-Thus, variable latent period

**A fatal zoonotic disease

--Human "dumb" rabies: fever, confusion, anxiety, encephalitis, death

Rabies: transmission-->

Bite --> virus grows in muscle

--> virus enters sensory nerve ending

--> virus travels to cord, brain

--> virus grows in brain, changes behavior

--> virus travels to salivary gland and is secreted

Animal Reservoirs of Rabies:





Diagnosis of Rabies

-Performed via a POST-MORTEM autopsy on animals

-Observing neuronal brain cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies)

-Identification of Rabies Strain

-(Bat, Skunk, etc...)

Paralytic Poliomyelitis

Paralytic Poliomyelitis

-Neurotropic viral infection acquired by ingestion

-Paralytic spinal cord infection

-Effective vaccine (PV -1,2,3)

-Unvaccinated children are at risk in parts of the world like India, Africa

The unique stages of infection and pathogenesis of poliomyelitis

Poliovirus, an "Enterovirus" has an icosahedral capsid shell that protects it from digestion.

Clostridium tetani, a soil organism and the causative agent of tetanus, have a unique tennis racket morphology.

Clostridium tetani, a soil organism and the causative agent of tetanus, have a unique tennis racket morphology.

Bacterial invasion, release of bacterial TOXIN and symptoms: Rigid paralysis