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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The nervous system is divided in two kinds of systems, what are they?
the central nervous system, and the peripheral nervous system
what is the central nervous system composed of?
the brain, and spinal cord
what surrounds the brain and spinal chord
bones of the cranium, bones of the betebral column, and three layers of tissue called meminges
what are the three layers of mininges called, and name them in order from outer layer to inner layer.
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
the blood vessels that supply the CNS, that contain walls of tightly joined cells form the.......
blood-brain barrier
the blood-brain barrier prevents most microbes from entering the......
Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
CSF can be romoved from the lumbar region of the spinal chord in a medical procedure called a
spinal tap
What is the peripheral nervous system composed of (PNS)
motor nerves and sensory nerves
What does a motor nerve do?
Transfers commands from the CNS to muscles and other organs throughout the body
what do sensory nerves do?
transmitt information to the CNS concerning events in the body and environmental stimuli
what do mixed nerves do?
they carry signals both toward and away from the CNS
Branches of nerves often merge together to form a...
nerve plexus
the entire nervous system is composed of two types of cells, what are they?
Neuroglia and Neurons
......are supporting cells that provide scaffoilding, insulation, nutrition, or defense
...are cells that generate and transmit nerve impulses
grouped together, nerve cell bodies form a.....
extensions from nerve cells....a long one and shorter ones
dendrites are the short extensions, while the axon is the longer extension
What does the dendrite do?
Carries impulses toward cell body.
What does the axon do?
Carries impulses away from cell body
What is axonal transport?
the cytoskeleton transport of substances, within an axon
The terminal ends that form junctions with muscle cells, gland cells, and other neurons is called
the space between an axon and a neighboring cell is called....
synaptic cleft
The bridge the gap of the synaptic cleft, what is needed for communication to take place?
the central nervous system is an axenic environment...which means....
it has no normal microbiota
microbes in the blood or lymph my penetrate the blood-brain barrier by infecting and killing cells of the meninges, causing what
this is an inflammatory bacterial infection of the meninges, most commonly the pia and arachnoid mater, an increased number of white blood cells in the CSF is charcteristic, somtimes petechiae may occcure, what am I?
bacterial meningitis
small hemorrages of blood vessels in the skin is...
infection of the brain is called........
Name some bacteria that cause meningitis
Streptococcus pnemoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Streptoccocus agalactiae
Which meningitis bacteria enters the body through contaminated food or drink, and causes a form of meningitis called listeroisis
Listeria monocytogenes
Hansen's Disease is also known as.....
What bacterial causes Hansels Disease (Leprosy)
Mycobacterium leprae
Patients with a strong cell-mediated immune response to leprosy develop a non progressive form of the disease called....
tuberculoid leprosy
patients with a weak cell-mediated response to leprosey develop...........
lepromatous leprosy
diagnosis of leprosy is based on loss of sensation, disfigurement, and the rpesence of...........
Acid-fast rods (AFRs)
________is not an infection, but instead an intoxication cause by a________ of _________
Botulism, Neurotoxin, Clostridium botulinum
what does Botulism do?
it progressively paralyzes skeletal muscles
What are the three forms of bolulism?
food-born, infan, and wound botulism
What does treatment of botulism entail?
1. repeated washing of the intestinal tract to remove Clostridium

2. administration of botulism immune globulin intraveneously (BIG-IV)

3. administration of antimicrobial drugs, in infant and wound botulism
Tetanus is caused by what?
Clostridium tetani
severe muscle contraction, initially affecting the jaw, and neck muscles (called lockjaw) are symptoms of...........
tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin associated with...
why are there more viral infections of the nervous system, than bacterial or fungal infections?
viruses are smaller than cels, they can more readily cross the blood-brain barrier
......this kind of meningitis is more common thanbacterial and gungal meningitis, and is usually milder
viral meningitis
what is another name for viral miningitis?
aseptic meningitis
about 90% of cases of viral meningitis occurs from....
poliovirus is also called by this same genre of virus that causes viral meningitis it is.........
polio is also known as
poliomyelitis (polio) comes in 4 forms....they are
1. asymptomatic infection (90%)

2. minor polio

3. nonparalytic polio

4. paralytic polio
..........this is a muscle deterioration that affects polio patients 30-40 years after their original illness
Postpolio syndrome
._____ virus is a negative, ssRNA virus in the genus Lyssavirus
this is a degenerative neurologic disease characterized by pain or itching at the site of infection,
rabies is ______, that is , a dieseas spread from animal reservoirs to humans
Anthropod-born viruses, called ________ are transmitted between
What are some examples of arboviral encephalitis?
Eastern equine encephalitis and West Nile virus
Fungi rarely infect the central nervous system, occasionally ______ (fungal diseases) spread from the lngs via the blood to the meninges.
what causes cryptococcal meningitis?
Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast
Protozoan infections of the nervous system are relatively _________
What causes African sleeping sickness?
Trypanosoma brucie
What is the fly that spreaks african sleeping sickness?
tsetse fly
african sleeping sickness is characterized by....
fever, swollen lymph nodes and headaches
What to amoebae cause PAM (primary amebic menigoencephalopathy)
Acanthamoeba and Naegleria
What is a prion?
an infectious protein
In sheep prions cause a disease called _________
in cattle prions cause........
mad cow disease
Bothe scapie and mad cow disease are classified
spongiform encephalpathies
________ disease is a naturally occuring dementia that strike about one person in a million at approximately 60 years of age
________is contracted from eating the contaminated meat of animals infected with preions
new variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease
the _______ tunic of the eye provides a tough barrier against microbes
the fibrous tunic consists of
sclera and cornea
the ________ lines the back side of the yelids and all but the center of the cornea
interior of they has two fluid filled chambers called
the back inner wall of the eye is the_______
______is the leading cause of nontraumatic blindness in humans
_________is responsible for trachoma development in new borns
Chlamydia trachomatis
________is an inflamaton of the conjunctiva due to infection with any of a variety of bacteria, fungi viruses or protozoa, also known as pink eye
____is the infflamation of the cornea