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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Cardiovascular System

- Circulates blood through the body's tissues

- Includes the heart and associated arteries, veins and capillaries

- Delivers substances to and removes substances from the cells

Lymphatic System

- Plasma leaves blood capillaries to become interstitial fluid; can pick up microorganisms and infectious agents

- Capillaries transport fluid to vessels to nodes


B Cells

T Cells

Lymph Nodes contain these 3 fixed Cells


Swollen lymph nodes


Acute illness due to the presence of pathogens or their toxins in the blood


- Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)


Inflamed lymph vessels

Severe sepsis

- When Systemic inflammatory response syndrome progresses, there is decreased blood pressure and dysfunction of at least one organ

Septic shock

- Sepsis and uncontrollable decreased blood pressure

- Always by gram negative bacteria

- Response is very fast

1. Inflammation
2. Septic shock
3. Death
4. 1 million
5. Septicemia

The response of defense can be extremely fast sometimes causing release of chemicals into the blood leading to _____1______ of the entire body. In very severe cases, ____2____ can develop, causing ____3_____. According to the data given by CDC,every year around ____4____ deaths occur in the USA due to ____5____.

1. Septicemia
2. fever
3. fast heart rate
4. breathing
5. organs
6. low blood pressure
7. septic shock

There are 3 stages of ___1___. The first stage is mild with mild symptoms like __2__ and ___3___. The second stage involves ___4___ problems and malfunctioning of the __5__ can occur. In the third/final stage, the condition becomes very severe, causing very ____6____ and ___7___.

1. Endotoxin shock

2. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

3. blood pressure

4. neutralizing

5. cytokines

In Gram Negative Sepsis, also called _____1______, ___2___ in cell walls causes severe drop in ___3___. Antibiotics can make it worse by killing bacteria, releasing toxins in cell walls; often not administered to halt progression. Early signs are nonspecific and not esp. alarming. Treatment involves ___4___ the __2__ components and inflammatory-causing __5__.

1. Fever
2. 90
3. 101 F
4. respiration
5. urine output
6. platelet count
7. blood pressure
8. breathing
9. heart pumping

Symptoms of septicemia start slowly with __1__ and general weakness and progress to severe gradually. There is an increased heart beat, more than __2__ bpm. A high fever above __3__ or chills below 96.8 F. High __4__, more than 20/minute. Very low __5__, __6__ and extremely low __7__, sudden change in mental position, difficulty __8__, increased __9__ and sometimes unconsciousness.


Loss of blood supply to tissue; wound becomes anaerobic


- Death of tissue


- Death of soft tissue

Hyperbaric Chamber

- Chamber of pure oxygen to treat patients with anaerobic bacterial diseases

Multiple sclerosis

- Autoimmune attack on the nervous system

Hodgkin's lymphoma

- Tumors of the spleen, lymph nodes and liver

- Multiple sclerosis

- Hodgkin's Lymphoma

- Nasopharyngeal cancer

- Burkitt's Lymphoma

- Infectious Mononucleosis

5 Diseases associated with the Epstein-Barr virus

1. Positive

2. Enterococcus faecalis

3. Streptococcus agalactiae

4. Streptococcus pyogenes

5. toxic shock

6. hospital acquired

7. Gastrointestinal

Gram ___1___ sepsis is caused by exotoxins produced by the 3 species ___2___, ___3____ and ___4___. These potent exotoxins can cause ___5___ syndrome and are associated to ___6___ infections. Their typical route is through the ___7___ tract.

Enterococcus faecalis

- Bacteria that causes gram positive sepsis

- Inhabit colon, colonizes wound and urinary tract

- Resistant to many antibiotics

Streptococcus agalactiae

- GBS - Group B

- Associated with neonatal sepsis

Puerperal fever/Childbirth fever

- Disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes - Gram Positive Sepsis

- Progresses to an infection of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis)

- Transmitted to mother during childbirth, infects uterus

1. Tularemia

2. Francisella tularensi

3. Negative

4. Rod

5. Ulcers

6. Buboes

___1___ AKA rabbit fever is caused by ___2___ which is a Gram __3__ __4__. It is transmitted from rabbits, ticks and insects by deer flies. It causes __5__ at site of entry, and __6__ about 1 week after infection.

Tularemia "Rabbit Fever"

- If left untreated can lead to sepsis and infection of organs; respiratory infection from inhaling dust contaminated by urine or feces of infected animals can cause acute pneumonia with mortality rate>30%

- Zoonotic disease; intracellular phagocytic; mortality usually <3%

1. Bacillus anthracis

2. positive

3. endospore

4. aerobic

5. rod

6. Cutaneous

7. Gastrointestinal

8. Inhalational (pulmonary)

Anthrax is caused by ___1__ which is a Gram __2__, __3__ forming __4__ (aerotolerance) __5__(shape) found in soil. It has 3 types based on route of entry, __6__, __7__, and ___8___.

1. Cutaneous

2. 20

3. Gastrointestinal

4. 50

__1__ anthrax is where endospores enter through minor cut, __2__% mortality without treatment. __3__ anthrax comes from ingestion of undercooked, contaminated food with __4__% mortality rate.

Pulmonary Anthrax

- Caused by gram positive endospore forming aerobic rod

- Inhalation of endospores - bacteria enter bloodstream, progresses into septic shock

- Almost 100% mortality

Gas Gangrene

- Disease caused by Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium perfringens

- Gram positive, endospore-forming anaerobic rod

- Grows in necrotic tissue; produces toxins that move along muscle bundles

- Treatment: Surgical removal necrotic tissue or hyperabaric chamber

Cat Scratch Disease

- Caused by Bartonella henselae

Bartonella henelae

- Gram negative aerobic

- Forms papule at the infection site and swollen lymph nodes

- Inhabits cat RBCs; carried in the blood of 50% of cats; multiplies in the digestive system of cat fleas; self-limiting


- Caused by Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pestis

- Gram negative rod

- Causes buboes

- Antibiotic prophylaxis for exposure

- endemic to rates, ground squirrels and prairie dogs; bacteria blocks flea's digestive tract; flea bites host and ingested blood is regurgitated into the host; bacteria enter bloodstream and proliferate in the lymph tissue

- Transmitted by rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopsis)

Bubonic Plague

- Type of plague with Bacterial growth in the blood and lymph; most common form; 50-75% mortality rate

Septicemic Plague

- Type of plague that causes septic shock


- Type of plague spread by airborne droplets; 100% mortality

Lyme Disease

- Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi

Borrelia burgdorferi

- Tickborne spiral bacteria

- Cause of most common tickborne disease in U.S.; field mice are the most common reservoir - nymphal stage of the Ixodes tick feeds on mice and infects humans and less likely to be noticed; ticks feed on deer that are not infected; ticks must attach 2-3 days to transfer bacteria; distinctive target shaped rash only occur in ~75% of cases

Lyme Disease

Phase 1: Bull's eye rash; flulike symptoms. Phase 2: Irregular heartbeat; encephalitis; facial paralysis; memory loss. Phase 3: arthritis due to an immune response (months or years later)

- Diagnosis: ELISA, indirect fluorescent-antibody (FA) test or Western blot; Treatment: Phase 1: antibiotics effective; Phase 2: pacemaker may be necessary; more difficult to treat in later stages with antibiotics

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

- Tickborne typhus

- Caused by Rickettsia rickettsii

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

- 1 week after bite: Measles like rash that appears on palm and soles

- Without early diagnosis mortality rate is 20%

- Spread by wood ticks (Dermacentor andersoni) and dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis)

- Treatment: Tetracycline and chloramphenicol

Infectious Mononucleosis

- Incubation about 4-7 weeks

- Fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, enlarged spleen

- Replicates in resting memory B cells to form unusual lobed nuclei and produce heterophile antibodies which are weak and multispecific

- Transmitted via saliva


Cytomegalic inclusion disease

- 2 Diseases caused by Human herpesvirus 5

Human Herpesvirus 5

- Virus that is Transmitted sexually, via blood, saliva or transplanted tissue

- Disease: Cytomegalovirus and cytomegalic inclusion disease


- Human herpesvirus 5

- may be asymptomatic or mild in adults

- Remains latent in white blood cells; infected cells swell to form owl-eye inclusions

Cytomegalic inclusion disease

- Human herpesvirus 5

- mental retardation or hearing loss in newborns

- Transmitted across the placenta

Toxoplasma gondii

- Parasite

- may become chronic infection; primary danger is congenital infection that leads to stillbirth and neurological damage

- undergoes sexual phase in cat intestines and oocytes shed in cat feces; oocysts form trophozoites that invade cells

- contact with cat feces or undercooked meat introduces oocytes to intestines


- Toxic compounds causes paroxysms of chills and fever- undergo schizogony that ruptures the infected RBCs and releases toxic compounds; some merozoites develop into gametocytes and are taken up by a mosquito, repeating the cycle

- Difficult to develop vaccine because plasmodium rapidly mutates and evades an immune response; difficult to diagnose without sophisticated equipment; Prophylaxis: Chloroquine and Malarone for chloroquine-resistant areas; Treatment: Artemisinin; Prevention: Bed nets


- Caused by plasmodium - parasite

Plasmodium vivax

- Malaria causative agent

- Mildest and most prevalent form; dormant in liver

Plasmodium ovale and malariae

- Malaria causative agent (2)

- Benign; restricted geographically

Plasmodium falciparum

- Malaria causative agent

- Most deadly, blocks capillaries, affects the kidneys, liver and brain

- Causes severe anemia


Lyme Disease

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Lyme Disease

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever