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91 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what occurs when bacteria are present in the blood but not growing?
what refers to growing bacteria in the blood?
what is a life threatening condition in which the blood pressure drops and blood vessels collapse? what are the three main words associated with it?
septic shock; shock, drop and collapse
1/3 of all septicemias are caused by what organisms?
gram negative
what causes septic shock?
the endotoxins (cell membrane: LPS) produced by the gram negative organisms
what type of treatments of septicemias often worsen the situation?
how many septicemias are nosocomial; following surgery
what is lymphangitis?
inflammation of the lymphatic vessels that leave the site of injury, other symptoms are fever and shock
what is the morality rate for septicemia?
how do you diagnose septicemias?
blood culture
how do you treat septicemia?
an elevation of blood pressure, stabilization followed by antibiotic therapy
what is the causative agent of puerperal fever?
streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Strep): this is in the mother as normal flora, gets in to the blood stream during delivery
what are signs and symptoms of puerperal fever?
fever, chills, pelvic distension and tenderness, bloody vaginal discharge
what is the treatment for puerperal fever?
antibiotic therapy: usually penicillin: low mortality
what is the causative agent of Group B streptococcal disease?
streptococcus agalactiae (Group B strep): in the baby
what are the symptoms of group b streptococcal disease?
appear within a few days of birth with fever, respiratory distress and lethargy
what is the treatment for group b streptococcal disease?
mother: ampicillin (before birth)
baby is given ampicillin 7-10 days after birth
rheumatic fever is a sequelae to what?
strep pyogenes infection
rheumatic fever is most common in what age group?
what are the symptoms of rheumatic fever?
fever and rash followed by arthritis
how do you diagnose rheumatic fever?
damage to the mitral valve
rheumatic fevers should take ____ _____ antibiotics prior to any dental work
prophylactic antibiotics
what are the symptoms of bacterial endocarditis?
fever, malaise, bacteremia and heart murmur in 2 out of 3 patients
what is the causative agent of bacterial endocarditis?
viridans streptococcus, enterococcus
what does it mean when bacterial endocarditis is considered acute?
it is rapid onset; usually leading to complete valve destruction and death within a few days
what is the treatment for bacterial endocarditis?
antibiotice therapy to kill the infection
-often valve replacement
-50% cured antibiotics, 25% cured by surgery and 25% die
what is the causative agent of bacterial endocarditis?
staphylococcus aureus
what is the causative agent of filariasis?
several roundworms
what is common with filariasis?
wuchereria bancrofti
how many people word wide are infected with filariasis?
100 million
how does filariasis occur?
female worms release embryos called microfilaria which are in the peripheral blood vessels at night and retreat to the deep vessels during the day
how is filariasis transmitted?
-when the mosquito bites the microfilaria gain access to the host and reproduce in the lymphatic vessels
repeated infections of filariasis leads to..
what is filariasis treated with?
hetrazan, albendazole or metronidazole
-wrapping the effected limbs to force lymph through the vessels can reduce the size of the effected limb
what is the causative agent of anthrax?
bacillus anthracis
where is anthrax mostly seen?
in farm animals, especially herbivores
what are the 3 types of anthrax?
-cutaneous: 90% of cases: 10-20% fatal
-intestinal: 5% of cases: 25-50% fata
-respiratory: 5% of cases: almost 100% fatal regardless of treatment: bio-terrorism
where is pulmonary anthrax common?
among grazing animals whose noses are close to the soil in which antrhax spores wait
how does pulmonary anthrax attack?
-once inhaled into the lungs, the spores germinate in alveoli where they are phagocytized, but not killed by the macrophages
-they eventually kill the macrophages
-clots from inside pulmonary capillaries and lymph nodes, causing swelling that obstructs airways
-person to person spread does not occur, not coughed up
who contracted pulmonary anthrax during the 2001 attacks?
postal workers: they all lived but never regained their former health
pulmonary anthrax is treated with what?
who must be vaccinated for pulmonary anthrax?
what is the causative agent of the plague?
yersinia pestis
what are the common vectors of plague?
rats and fleas
plague is found in rodents in which part of the US?
western states
if plague goes untreated, what is the mortality rate?
how does yersinia pestis attack?
travels through the lymphatics and lodge in the lymph nodes where they cause hemorrhages and massive node enlargements
-especially in the axillary and inguinal nodes
-called buboes
-appear 2-7 days after infection and turn black
what is "pneumonic plague"?
pneumonic plague occurs if the organism colonizes the lungs and air droplets spread (near 100% fatal)
what is the treatment for plague?
streptomycin and or tetracycline
what is the causative agent of lyme disease and what are the major reservoirs?
CA: borrelia burgdorferi
-whitetail deer and deer ticks are the major reservoirs
what are the signs and symptoms of lyme disease?
after being bitten lyme disease begins with a fever and a characteristic "bull's eye rash"
-untreated it can lead to arthritis nerve and heart disorders
what is the treatment for lyme disease?
doxycycaline and amoxicillin are used for treatment and are much more effective if used early in disease
what is the causative agent of rickettsial disease?
rickettsia species, gram negative obligate intracellular parasites
humans are what kind of hosts for rickettsia species?
what is the treatment for rickettsial diseases?
tetracycline and chloramphenicol, NOT curative
what is the causative agent for rocky mountain spotted fever?
rickettsia rickettsii
what are the symptoms for rocky mountain spotted fever?
rapid onset of fever, headache and weakness
-rash develops on the wrists and ankles and progresses to the trunk
most reported cases of rocky mountain spotted fever actually occur where?
in the appalachian mountains
what is the causative agent of dengue fever?
four CAs all belonging to the flavavirus family
what is dengue fever also known as?
break-bone fever because of severe joing pain
how is dengue fever transmitted? how do you control the transmission?
viruses are carried by mosquito vectors that have arrived in the US recently
-mosquito control is best preventative
where is yellow fever most common?
in central and south america
what is the most common vector/host relationship for yellow fever?
monkeys = host
mosquitos = vector
yellow fever became a problem during the building of what?
the panama canal
what are the signs and symptoms of yellow fever?
fever, nausea and vomiting; liver damage from viral replication in liver cells causes jaundice for which the disease is named for
what is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis? what other diseases does this agent cause?
a herpes virus called epstein-barr virus (EBV)
also causes: burkitt's lymphoma and hairy leukoplakia
how does EBV affect its host?
infects primarily B cells
-wherever they may be..bone marrow, intestines, anywhere
describe burkitt's lymphoma
-usually seen as a tumor of the jaw
-more common in countries where there are other parasitic diseases such as malaria
describe mono
-incubation pd is between 30-50 days
-most patients have a sore throat, malaise, mild headache
-clinical tests are required for diagnosis because the signs and symptoms of disease resemble many other disorders
what is the treatment of infectious mononuecleosis
-bed rest
-antibiotics to prevent secondary infections: NOT ampicillin: leads to a rash
-no vaccine is available
-infection leads to lasting immunity
what is the common characteristic of causative agents of filoviruses? which is the most famous?
all have characteristic fish-hook shape
-most famous is the ebola virus
what does filovirus result in?
50-90% fatal
100% result in gruesome-hemorrhagic fever
how does ebola (causative agent of filovirus) attack?
interacts specifically with liver cells and cells of the reticuloendothelial system
-lining of blood capillaries are attacked
-capillaries start to leak fluids and plasma proteins
-some intravascular coagulation and subsequent loss of normal clotting capability
-this leads to shock because of low water volume in the body
-causes general interruption of tissue oxygenation causing critical organ failure
-impossible to reverse
four strains of ebola, the only one not spread in humans is...
reston strain
-named after reston virginia where monkeys were found as carriers
what is the causative agent of leishmaniasis?
leishmania species
visceral leishmaniasis - kala azar is also known as what?
black poison
what is the leishmaniasis carried by? how many cases are there world wide?
carried by a sandfly vector
12 million cases
what are the symptoms of leishmaniasis?
high irregular fever, progressive weakness, wasting, protrusion of the abdomen due to extensive liver and spleen enlargement
what is leishmaniasis treated with?
antimony compounds
leishmaniasis is considered a what?
a desert storm disease
what is the causative agent of malaria?
plasmodium species, four species
what is one of the world's greatest health problems, killing a million people annually?
what are the symptoms of malaria?
fever, shivering, arthralgia (joint pain), vomiting, anemia and convulsion
how do malaria causing organisms attack?
reproduce in RBCs as trophozoites
-release causes high fever intervals
what is the treatment of malaria?
-prophylactice treatment for people going to malarial regions is recommended 1 wk before during and 6 wks after
-treamtnet suppresses clinical symptoms but does not always prevent infection
what is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis
toxoplasma gondii
most americans who get toxoplasmosis get it from where?
their cats
-only a problem if the cat is a mouser
why is toxoplasmosis a problem within the french?
they like to eat steak tartar (raw steak)
toxoplasmosis is most serious in what?
developing fetuses and newborns
-it also causes blindness and mental retardation
one to three cases per 1000 births with a 50% mortality rate is associated with what?
group B streptococcal disease
what is the gram stain and morphology of rheumatic fever
gram positive chains