Pathogens Cause Disease

Superior Essays
Pathogens cause disease and can only survive if they continue to multiply and transfer to other organisms; pathogenicity’s purpose is transmission, this can be seen due to the many ways of transmission done various diseases. The transmission of disease can happen many ways, but is vital to the survival and the spread of the diseases. This can be seen in the transmission of Vibrio cholera, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria. Without transmission a disease will not survive, it cannot continue to thrive without transfer to another host. Infections are dependent on their hosts, so therefore without the host the disease is destined to die, which is why successful infections do not immediately kill their host. Vibrio cholera, or cholera …show more content…
HIV is a virus, a member of the Lentivirus genus, that affects 36.7 million people and only 17 million of who are on antiretroviral treatment (World Health Organization, 2016). There is no cure for HIV, however a mixture of three antiretroviral drugs tends to be effective in controlling it (Lewis, 2011). HIV is a sexually transmitted disease meaning that it can only be transmitted via the exchange of body fluids with an infected person such as breast milk, blood, semen and vaginal secretions; however the most common type of transmission is sexual transmission (Lewis, 2011). HIV targets the immune system, mainly helper T cells (CD4+ T cells) and macrophages (Dotish, et al. 2014). HIV uses the chemokine receptors CCR5 and/or CXCR4 to infect the CD4+ T cells, virus using only CCR5 receptors called R5, those using only CXCR4 called X4 and those using both called X4R5; once the chemokine receptor has latched onto the virus takes control over the T cell using it to produce more copies of the itself (Coakley E, Petropoulos CJ, Whitcomb JM, 2005). Transmission from person to person is able to happen due to the fact that T cells are present in blood therefore when two persons exchange bodily fluids, like blood, they receive the T cells infected with HIV and then they themselves are infected with the virus. HIV is transmitted …show more content…
Malaria is a disease caused by parasites, in the genus Plasmodium, that are transmitted between the human population and female Anopheles mosquitoes (Carter R, 2001). Malaria is complex due to the fact that it can infect both humans and mosquitoes, however, it only causes disease with symptoms such as high fever, chills, and vomiting in humans mosquitoes are not affected by the parasite (CDC, 2016). Once a human is infected with the parasite, in the form of a sporozoite, the parasite grows and multiplies in the liver then moves into the red blood cells of the body where it will grow inside the red blood cells eventually destroying them and releasing daughter parasite that can go on to infect other red blood cells (CDC, 2016). It is at this stage where malaria symptoms would begin to appear – due to the ruptured red blood cells (CDC, 2016). Transmission from human host to mosquito occurs when the female Anopheles mosquito when ingesting the human hosts blood takes up gametocytes, the sexual stage of the parasite. (Lin JT, Saunders DL, Meshnick SR, 2015). Once the female mosquito has taken up the blood containing the gametocytes they mature in the mosquito gut, there male and female gametocytes combine to form an ookinete, a fertilized zygote (Cowman AF, Berry D, Baum J, 2012). This process occurs ten to eighteen days

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Few things are as devastating as disease or terminal illness. Several diseases have made an appearance or re-emergence over the last couple of decades – HIV being among the most prevalent and devastating. HIV, or the human immunodeficiency virus, “is a chronic infectious disease passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood or sexual contact” (Hoeger, Hoeger, Hoeger, & Fawson, 2015). HIV was originally formed in chimpanzees in Central Africa, and spread to humans through infected blood (What is HIV/AIDS?, 2015). Once the virus has entered into the body, it replicates and attacks and kills white blood cells.…

    • 1375 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The Zika Virus

    • 727 Words
    • 3 Pages

    While pesticides are effective in killing mosquitoes, they also disrupt other parts of the ecosystem. One example of this is that pesticides also kill major pollinators such as honeybees and butterflies. Also, the non-consistent use of pesticides allows mosquitoes to develop a defense against them. The species evolve to become more resilient. Another defense, bed nets, has decreased the number of cases of malaria by 37% since 2000.…

    • 727 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    As HIV enters the body, it invades the CD4 T-cells, reproduces, and then kills the cell. At this point, the infected person may not show any symptoms. However, some people may experience flu-like symptoms. As the cell count declines below 200, the person is then diagnosed with AIDS (CD4 Count). This is the final stage of HIV.…

    • 926 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    HIV is not spread easily; HIV can only be passed on through certain body fluids from a HIV-infected person. The list of body fluids possible to contract HIV is blood, semen (cum), pre seminal fluid (pre-cum), rectal fluids, vaginal fluids and breast milk. The body fluids listed must come into contact with a mucous membrane or a damaged tissue or HIV injected directly into your bloodstream for transmission of HIV to possibly occur. Having sexual intercourse is the biggest risk of contracting HIV; anal sex is the highest risk sexual behaviour. Vaginal sex is the second highest risk of sexual behaviour.…

    • 1122 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In the United States two of the most common forms of transmission are sexual intercourse and sharing intravenous drug equipment. Unlike “dry” skin, mucous membranes are susceptible to HIV transmission due to the fact that this “wet” skin is not covered in protective fibers. Once the body has been exposed to HIV, the HIV will cross the epithelial layer of mucous membrane. After entering the mucous membrane HIV begins the replication process and will eventually enter the blood and lymph system and begin spreading to other parts of the body. Following initial exposure and infection the individual may begin to experience early symptoms such as fever, swollen glands, excessive fatigue, etc.…

    • 776 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Immunodeficiency Virus

    • 1011 Words
    • 4 Pages

    HIV has seven steps in affecting CD4 cells. First, the HIV Virus binds with the CD4 cells and fusses with the cell. Then, an HIV enzyme is released into the cell and inserts the HIV DNA into the cell’s DNA. The HIV then uses the CD4 protein to replicate and then releases itself to infect more CD4 cells (AIDSinfo, 2015). If the HIV goes without treatment the HIV will destroy all CD4 cells so that the Immune System can no longer prevent and fight infection.…

    • 1011 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Analysis Of The ZIKA Virus

    • 1205 Words
    • 5 Pages

    It and most members of the FLAVIVIRIDAE family are under one umbrella known as arboviruses due to they are transmitted to host cells by medial vectors like arthropods. Humen are infected by the bite of various species of female AEDES mosquitoes, and the common species spread in the US are Aedes Aegpti, Aedes albopictus. Because of the loss a pollen against this virus and lack the biology researches so it leads up to continue propagation on new geographic…

    • 1205 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    HIV/AIDS Research

    • 1095 Words
    • 4 Pages

    What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS has been a major problem in society since the 1980’s and it is the most common immunodeficiency disorder. It was primarily discovered in homosexuals who had very low immune systems. (Neighbor & Tannehill-Jones, 2014) There is a slight difference between HIV and AIDS. HIV is the abbreviation for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and it is basically when the person is considered a carrier of the virus.…

    • 1095 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    HIV and Aids are known diseases, yet few people actually understand what they are. It is important to know the facts about HIV and Aids, so that one can understand how treatment works. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is similar to many other viruses, like the virus that causes the “flu.” However, the body can fight against the virus that causes the “flu” but can’t fight against HIV. This is because HIV weakens the immune system by destroying T-cells or CD4 cells, which are important in fighting against disease and infections.…

    • 1370 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Dengue Fever Essay

    • 1104 Words
    • 5 Pages

    In most cases the mosquito bites a person infected with DF and contracts the disease. Later the mosquito bites a healthy person, giving the human the dengue virus. Dengue fever cannot be transmitted through direct person to person contact, this includes casual contact and sexual contact. Dengue fever also cannot be contracted through aerosols or contaminated food materials. But dengue fever can be transmitted through organ transplants and blood transfusions.…

    • 1104 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays

Related Topics