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45 Cards in this Set

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Upper Respiratory System
Nose, pharynx,middle ear, and eustachian tubes

Saliva andtears protect mucosal surfaces

-Lower Respiratory System

- Larynx,trachea, bronchial tubes, and alveoli

- Ciliaryescalator moves particles toward the throat via ciliary action

- Alveolarmacrophages destroy microorganisms in the lungs

- Respiratorymucus protects mucosal surfaces

- Nearly sterile

Ciliary Escalator
moves particles toward the throat via ciliary action
Alveolar macrophages
- Keeps lower respiratory system mostly sterile by destroying microorganisms in the lungs
Respiratory Mucus

- Protects mucosal surfaces of the lower respiratory system
- Sore throat



- Inflammation of the larynx

- Inflammation of the Tonsils

- Inflammation of the Sinus

* Usually self-limiting


- Most life threatening disease of the upper respiratory system

Streptococcus pyogenes

- Gram Positive Aerobic

- Group A Streptococci

- Necrotizing fasciitis

- Toxic shock syndrome

- Pharyngitis

- Scarlet fever

- Puerperal Sepsis (Gram Positive)

5 Diseases caused by streptococcus pyogenes

Strep Throat

- Local inflammation, fever, tonsilitis, enlarged lymph nodes

- Resistance to phagocytosis; Streptokinases lyse clots; Streptolysins are cytotoxic

- Diagnosis: enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests

Scarlet Fever
- Red Strawberry Tongue caused by toxin causing pinkish red skin rash

- Erythrogenic toxin produced by lysogenized bacteria

- Caused by corynebacterium

- Sore throat followed by general malaise and swelling of throat; forms tough grayish membrane in the throat which is fibrin and dead tissue that can block the passage of air to the lungs

- circulates in the blood and damages the heart and kidneys

- Leading infectious cause of death in children until 1935; exotoxin produced by lysogenized bacteria that circulates in the blood and damages the heart and kidneys; spread by droplet transmission

- Prevented by DTaP vaccine

1. Cutaneous

2. Skin ulcers

__1__ diphtheria causes __2__

1. Viral

2. Bacterial

Sneezing, nasal secretion, congestion without fever is usually ___1___.

With fever is usually ___2___.

Rhinovirus (30-50%)

Coronavirus (10-15%)

2 Viruses known to cause common cold and their percentage of cases
common cold
- Over 200 different viruses

- Sneezing, nasal secetion, congestion

- Leads to laryngitis and otitis media not accompanied by fever

- Thrive in temperatures lower than body temperature; viruses remain viable on surfaces touched by contaminated fingers for hours (Fomites)

- antihistamines treatment

1. Whooping Cough

2. Negative

3. Aerobic

4. Coccobacillus

5. Capsule

____1___ is caused by Bordetella pertussis which is a Gram ___2__ __3___(aerotolerance) __4__(shape) that produces __5__ (structure).
Whooping Cough Pertussis
Capsule allows attachment to ciliated cells in the trachea, destroys these and shuts down the ciliary escalator; tracheal cytotoxin of cell wall damages ciliated cells; toxin enters the bloodstream

- before vaccines, 6000 people died annually in the U.S.; aggressive coughing can can cause brain damage in infants or break ribs in children or burst blood vessels in eyes, bruising of eyes, organ damage

- 3 stages

Whooping Cough Pertussis
Stage 1: Catarrhal stage - Cold-like symptoms. Stage 2: Paroxysmal stage -Violent coughing, gasping for air, accumulated mucous has accumulated and patient tries to clear it

Stage 3: Convalescence stage may last for months

Prevention: DTaP vaccine; Treatment: with erythromyocin or other macrolides

1. Tuberculosis

2. Mycobacterium

3. aerobic

4. rod

5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis

6. Mycobacterium bovis

7. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex

___1___ is caused by ___2___ genus which is an acid-fast __3__(aerotolerance) __4__(shape) with a 20 hour generation time. The three causative species are ___5___, __6__ and ___7___.

Genus - Inhaled organisms are phagocytized by alveolar macrophages with spread mycolic acids from its cell wall to stimulate inflammatory response; organisms are isolated in the walled-off tubercle; tubercles heal and become calcified called Ghon's complexes; tubercle breaks down, releasing bacteria into the lungs and cardiovascular/lymphatic system
Slide 15
Slide 15
- Disease where Lipids in the cell wall make it resistant to drying and antimicrobials and avoid immunity; military type associated with disseminated infection; 9 million develop annually; 2 million die; 1/3 of world's population infected; leading cause of death for those with HIV
1. T-cells

2. delayed

3. acid-fast

4. 6 month

5. BCG

6. bovine

Tuberculin skin test: positive reaction means a current or previous infection; ___1___cells react with purified protein derivative from the TB bacterium by ___2___ hypersensitivity induration; followed by X-Ray or CT exam; __3__ staining of sputum and bacteria culturing; new rapid blood test for IFN-y and PCR test with higher specificity and less cross-reactivity; Treatment: __4__ minimum drug therapy due to slow growth and dormancy; first-line drugs, second-line drugs, multi-drug resistant strains, extensively drug-resistant strains; Prevention: ___5___ vaccine: live culture of avirulent M. ___6___ not widely used in the US from questionable effectiveness

1. bovine

2. avium intracellulare complex

Mycobacterium __1__ causes tuberculosis in cattle, less than 1% of cases. Mycobacterium ___2___ infects people with late-stage HIV infection
- Typically caused by Streptococci - about 90 serotypes - Gram positive encapsulated diplococci

- Other microorganisms are atypical

- Symptoms: High fever, breathing difficulty and chest pain


- Infected alveoli of the lung fill with fluids and RBCs interfering with oxygen uptake

- Diagnosis: Optochin inhibition test, bile solubility test or antigen in urine; Prevention: conjugated vaccine

- Contains 8 RNA segments and outer lipid bilayer

- Chills, fever, headache and muscle aches with no intestinal symptoms

- 30-50,000 deaths in the U.S. annually; Avian, swine and mammalian strains; Swine serve as "mixing vessels" for new strains; Hemagglutinin (HA) spikes which recognize and attach to host cells; Neuraminidase (NA) spikes which helps virus separate from the infected cell; 1% mortality, usually very young and very old

- Influenza

- Antigenic drifts: Allow minor antigenic changes in HA and NA, allow virus to elude some host immunity; Antigenic shifts: Allow changes great enough to evade most immunity which can lead to pandemics and involve the reassortment of the 8 RNA segments

- Prevention: Multivalent vaccine for the most important strains - composition of the vaccine determined annually by the identification of circulating viruses which is labor-intensive to produce and does not form long-term immunity; difficult to diagnose form clinical symptoms; Treatment: zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu) which inhibits neuraminidase




Causes by lentivirus (retrovirus)


- Two identical strands of RNA; reverse transcriptase enzyme; phospholipid envelope

- gp120 glycoprotein spikes help interact with T cell receptors

1. Dendritic cells

2. T cells

3 gp120

4. CD4+

HIV is spread by ___1___ and carried to lymphoid organs, contacts activated ___2___. __3__ spikes combine with __4__ receptor, which are carried on __2__ helper cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Virus fuses and enters the cell.

Reverse transcriptase

Enzyme used by Lentivirus to transcribe own DNA, integration


Term for Virus that is hidden in chromosome to stay latent

1. Helper

2. Macrophages

3. Vacuoles

4. Antigenic

Some become ___1___ T cells that serve as reservoir for HIV, some __2__ can have virons in their __3__. Virus undergoes rapid __4__ changes and high rate of mutation. Antibodies ineffective.


- viruses that infect chimpanzees and gorillas

- 99% of cases

- group m (majority) accounts for 90%


- Related to viruses that infect monkeys and sooty mangabeys

- Not often encountered outside of Africa

- Less pathogenic than HIV-1


Phase 1: asymptomatic or lymphadenopathy (Swollen lymph nodes – Innate Immunity)Provirus

Phase 2: CD4+ T cells decline steadily; only a few infected cells release the virus; few serious disease symptoms (persistent infections, fever, and oral leukoplakia)

Phase 3: AIDS develops; the CD4+ is count below 200 cells/μl; indicator conditions


- Initial strong and effective immune responseCTLs=CD8

- T- cells suppress viral numbers

- Attack viral CD4+ T cells

- Once HIV establishes a pool of latently infected CD4+ T cells, it is impossible to clear the infection

- Challenge to make a vaccine


- Older adults and young children do not a have fully developed immune system, making them more susceptible

- Exposed, but not infected populationCCR5 mutation on the CD4+ receptors so HIV cannot bind- Long-term nonprogressors “survivors” stay at Phase 1

- Low viral load

- HIVEffective CTLs


- Antiviral Therapy (PG 542)

Prevent provirus

Prevent release of virons

Prevent reverse transcriptase