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58 Cards in this Set

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Small Intestine

Large intestine

Structures of the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract AKA alimentary canal


Salivary Glands




Accessory Structures
1. 25

2. 80

3. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue

4. Lymph nodes

5. Peyer's Patches

The digestive system is very important in the absorption of food, __1__ tons of food pass through the GI tract in a lifetime, __2__% of the immune system is located in the intestinal tract by ___3___ such as the __4__ and ___5___.

1. Millions

2. HCl

3. paneth

4. defensins

___1___ of normal microbiota / mL saliva

, there are few microorganisms in the stomach from ___2___ production. Small intestine has ___3___ cells which are granule-filled phagocytic cells that produce ___4___. 100 billion bacteria per gram of feces.

Paneth cells
- In small intestine: Granule-filledphagocytic cells; produce defensins

Dental Plaque

- Biofilms involved in the formation of dental caries
# of species of bacteria in the oral cavity
Streptococcus mutans
- Most important cariogenic organism

- Gram positive coccus

- Converts sucrose to lactic acid

- Produces dextran, polysaccharide that forms plaque

- Attracts other cariogenic bacteria such as Streptococci and filamentous Actinomyces
1. Caries

2. Positive

3. Rods

4. Pulp

5. Table sugar

___1___ penetrate from enamel into the dentin. Caused by Gram __2__ __3__(shape) and filamentous bacteria. Decay can reach __4__, which contains blood supply and nerve cells. May advance to soft tissues, leading to abscesses. Introduction of __5__ in diet correlated with high level.

1. Staphylococcus Enterotoxicosis

2. Staphylococcus aureus

3. A

4. Coagulates

5. Toxin

6. Osmotic pressure

____1____ AKA food poisoning is caused by microbe ___2___ serological type __3__. __4__ blood plasma, produces __5__ when organisms incubates in food (temperature abuse) and the __5__ cannot be killed by boiling. Outgrows most bacteria in high __6__ and high temperature (60C for 30 min). Phage typing traces sources of contamination.
1. Shigellosis

2. Bacillary Dysentery

3. Shiga toxin

4. M

____1____ also known as ___2___, causes severe form of diarrhea, 20 bowel movements/day with abdominal cramps and fever. Produces __3__, bacteria not affected by stomach acid; attaches to __4__ cells, invades and spread to other cells which can cause damage to intestinal wall or invade bloodstream. No animal reservoir. Outbreaks in daycares and families



Shigella's aerotolerance?


- Caused by Salmonella enterica

- Genus - Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe

Nonendospore forming rod

1. Salmonellosis

2. 12-36

3. 6

4. 2000

5. M

6. macrophages

7. commercial chicken and egg

___1___ symptoms include fever, nausea, pain, cramps, diarrhea for a few days; incubation __2__ hours- can continue to shed bacteria in feces for up to__3__months.

Part of intestinal microbiota, ___4___ serotypes; invades intestinal mucosa and multiplies by passing through __5__ cells and entering the lymphatics, can replicate in ___6___; 1.4 million cases; 400 deaths annually; associated with ___7___ production

1. Typhoid Fever

2. Salmonella typhi

3. 2-3 weeks

__1__ caused by ___2__; high fever, headache, intestinal wall ulceration; incubation period of __3__.

Beef tapeworm
Taenia saginata

Pork tapeworm
Taenia solium
Fish tapeworm
Diphyllobothrium latum

Adult tapeworm that infects the intestine

Infection with the larval stage by ingesting eggs

Ophthalmic cysticercosis
Larvae lodge in the eye
Larvae developing in the central nervous system

1. Eggs are excreted in the feces and ingested by animals

2. Eggs hatch into a larval cysticercus that lodges in the muscle

3. Human ingests undercooked meat which develop into adult tapeworms in the intestine

Tapeworms have a three-stage life cycle



2 Structures in the feces to diagnose tapeworms
Praziquantel and albendazole are treatments for?
Enterobius vermicularis

- Pinworm (Nematode phyla)

- Lays eggs around the anus, causing local itching

- Can be treated with pyrantel pamoate and membandazole



2 Types of Nematodes


Necator americanus

Ancylostoma duodenale

These are examples of?


- Attaches to the intestinal wall and feeds on blood and tissue

- Anemia, lethargic behavior and craving for peculiar foods with no nutritional value (pica)

- Carried from human feces in soil that contact bare skin

- Treated with mebendazole


- 30% of the worldwide population is infected

- Eggs shed in the feces and are ingested by another person, hatch into larvae and pass into bloodstream and lungs; larvae migrate to throat and swallowed; develop into adults in intestinal tract and emerge from anus, mouth, or nose

- Treatment with mebendazole or albendazole


- Encysted larvae are ingested from undercooked pork and other meats

- Digestion removes the cyst wall and the worm matures into an adult

- Adults produce larvae in the intestines that invade tissues and form new cysts

- Fever, eye swelling, gastrointestinal upset

- Treatment with albendazole or mebendazole

Typhoid Fever

- Rare in US due to sanitation; estimated 21 million cases worldwide; bacteria replicate in and are spread throughout the body in phagocytes by releasing organism into the bloodstream; 1-3% patients become chronic carries harbored in gallbladder

- Spread by human feces

- Treated with chloramphenicol, quinolones, or cephalosporins

Vibrio cholerae

Causative agent of Cholera

Vibrio cholerae

- Gram negative vibrio

- Single polar flagellum


- rice water stools; can lose 12-20 fluid liters per day which causes shock, collapse, organ failure, death, viscous blood, violent vomiting


Associated with salty waters and can form biofilms; produced cholera toxin which causes host cells to secrete electrolytes and water and causes "rice water stools" Untreated mortality 50%, less than 1% with modern treatment; Increases when sanitation and sewage disposal systems are comporomised; Outbreak in Haiti after earthquake due to deficient septic system at the Nepalese base


Strategize for natural disasters with oral rehydration solutions such as salt, sugar, water, stockpile vaccine; Ultimately: Proper sanitation,water storage, handwashing

Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)

- E. coli that causes Shigella-like dysentery

- Gastrointestinal tract through M cells

Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)

- E. coli Only in humans; enterotoxin producing water diarrhea

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)

- causes colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome

0 Produces Shiga-like toxin released upon the cell's lysis; most outbreaks are due to serotype O157:H7; Cattles are main reservoir from undercooked meat

- diagnosed by the inability to ferment sorbitol and pulsed field gel electrophoresis

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)

Diarrhea in developing countries, cause host cells to form pedestals where the bacteria attach

Gas Gangrene

- Disease- Mild and occurs 8-12 hours after ingestion

- Associated with foods containing animal intestinal contents which creates low oxygen level, has necessary amino acids for growth, more common under recognized cause of gastroenteritis

- endospores survive most routine heatings, 20 minute generation time

- produces exotoxin

Bacillus cereus

- Large gram positive endospore

- Common in soil and vegetation; cooking eliminates competing microbes; spores survive heating and germinates to produce toxins

- different toxins cause different symptoms; diarrhea 8-16 hours after ingestion; nausea and vomiting 2-5 hours after ingestion

- "Starchy foods"


- Low-grade fever, diarrhea, vomiting, 2-3 day incubation

- Most common cause of this gastroenteritis in children; low mortality: 2 million cases but fewer than 100 deaths

- Prevented with live oral vaccine

Noravirus (Norwalk)

- 18-48 hour incubation; diarrhea and vomiting

- Caliciviruses; Low infectious dose; Associated with many people getting sick crammed on boats or catering/restaurant associated

- Fecal-oral

- Detected with PCR and EIA tests

Helicobacter Peptic Ulcer Disease

- AKA stomach ulcers

Helicobacter pylori

- Causes Stomach ulcers

- Flagellated vibrio

- Only 15% develop ulcers, designated carcinogenic bacteria for 3% develop gastric cancer

Helicobacter Peptic Ulcer Disease

- Infects 30-50% of the population in the developed world; grows in the stomach acid by producing urease, converts urea to alkaline ammonia; disrupts stomach mucosa causing inflammation

- Treated with antimicrobial drugs and bismuth subsalicylate; Diagnostic test requires a biopsy, culture and urea breath test

Clostridium difficile

- Gram positive endospore forming anaerobe that causes diarrhea with mild to severe symptoms

- Can lead to life threatening colitis; ulceration and perforation of the intestinal wall

Clostridium Associated Diarrhea

Genus - Causes more deaths than all other intestinal infections combine mostly from health care settings; Precipitated by the extended use of antibiotics, eliminates competing intestinal bacteria; outbreaks have occurred in day-care settings, caretakers have acquired it from patients; new strain capable of producing much more exotoxin and is now occuring at near epidemic rates

Giardia intestinalis

Flagellated protozoan


- prolonged diarrhea, malaise, weight loss, flatulence, cramps; hydrogen sulfide detected in the breath or stools

- Forms cysts in feces and water; trophozoites in the body; attaches to the intestinal wall

- Diagnosed with a string test, ELISA or FA test; treated with metronidazole and nitazoxanide


- Cholera-like diarrhea for 10-14 days

- Ingested oocysts release sporozoites that invade the intestinal epithelium; resistant to chlorination

- Diagnosed with a FA test or immunoassay tests; treatment with nitazoxanide

Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis

2 Parasites that cause Cryptosporidiosis

Trichinella spiralis

Nematode that causes Trichinellosis

Ascaris lumbricoides

Nematode that causes Ascariasis