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74 Cards in this Set

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Fungi importance

important as nosocomial infections and as opportunistic infection of immunocompromised

few are primary pathogens

nosocomial infections

infection that can be acquired in a hospital

opportunistic infections

usually part of normal flora, but when they get to a wrong spot, for ex. an IV punture spot where there isn't supposed to be bacteria, they can contaminate even f they are weak

fungi and benefits in nature

decomposition of plant matter

edible mushrooms

fungi and practical uses

leavening agent in bread

fermentation of beer/wine

cells walls of fungi: chitin

stains with calcium binding agents- Calcoflour white- for rapid identification of fungi in clinical specimens

cells walls of fungi: ergosterol

similar to cholesterol. we use this to treat fungal infection, it prevents ergosterol from creating more ergosterol in fungus and thus fungi can't multiply b/c it can't make new cell walls

antivirals that affect ergosterol synthesis

1. Amphotericin B

2. Azoles

3. Nystatin

3 types of fungi

1. moulds

2. yeasts

3. thermally dimorphic

thermally dimorphic

mould at 20 degrees C

yeast at 37 degrees celsius


body of fungus called "thallus," masses of hyphae e.g. white powdery layer on moldy fruit

molds- coenocytic hyphae

one big mold cell with multiple nuclei

molds- septate hyphae

individual cells


oval or spherical in shape

yeast reproduction

reproduce by budding


a line of cells that form if buds fail to detach

candida albicans use of pseudohyphae

candida albicans may attach to epithelial cells as a yeast, invading deper tissues by using psuedohyphae

saccharomyces uses

yeast-thanol for wine

yeast-carbon dioxide for leavening of bread

non pathogenic

yeast growth compared to moulds

yeast are capable of facultative anaerobic growth, most moulds are aerobic only

yeast capsules

some yeasts produce a polysaccharide capsule

ex. cryptococcus neoformans often causes meningitis in immunocompromised

Thermally dimorphic fungi

two forms of growth; as a mould at lower temp. and/or yeast at body temp.

Thermally dimorphic fungi


Thermally dimorphic fungi are not infectious in yeast form, mould form spreads by spore in the air

sporothrix- subcutaneous infection



also caled "rose garner's disease"

sporothrix- subcutaneous infection


causes lymphangitis, inflammation of the walls of lymphatic vessels, usually in the arms or legs, causing more ulcers as disease progresses

fungal reproduction

formation of spores, conidia, important for microscopic identification and or reproduction

to preserve DNA

very different from bacterial endospores

fungal vs bacterial survivability

fungi are not picky eaters, can survive in less rich media that bacteria can.

can grow better than bacteria in less than favourable conditions

most are aerobic and grow best at 25-30 degrees C

fungal diseases are calles

mycoses- plural

mycosis- singular

types of mycoses

1. superficial

2. cutaneous

3. systemic

goes from less to more severe

superficial mycoses

fungal infection along surface of hair shafts and outer layer of skin

causes mild infecrtions ex. malessezia furfur

cutaneous mycoses

fungal infection of deeper layers of the epidermis

cutaneous mycoses process

deeper infection is due to dermatohytes which degarde and use keratin as carbon source (food)

cutaneous clinical diseases are called tineas

capitis for head

pedis for feet

cruris for groin

corporis for tosrso

barbae for beard

systematic mycoses

infections in deep tissues/ organs

opportunistic fungal pathogens are problematic b/c..

they are normally on our skin or gut

opportunistic fungal pathogens

fungi are common cause of infections in immunocompromised individuals

ex, aspergillosis: caused by aspergillus niger- a mold

it infects people with debilitating lung diseases and immunocompromised

candidiasis- candida albicans

causes vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and thrush

C. albicans is normal flora in the gut and mouth


are in new borns, immunocompromised and in people who have been treated with broad spectrum antibiotics


disinfectant used on the skin

aseptic technique

use of methods to exclude microorganisms


kills bacteria


inhibits growth of bacteria, doesn't kill


chemicals used to destroy many micro-organism and viruses

used for normal cleaning, lysol


kills fungi


brief heat treatment used to reduce the numbers of organisms and to kill pathogenic organisms

milk we drink is pasteurized


reduction of the # of organisms to a level that meets public health standards


destruction of all forms of microorganisms, including spores


inactivating viruses

ventilation and surgery

you want clean air when doing surgery to not infect

how to have proper ventilation

1. ultra-clean air with High Efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA)

2. building standards for correct air flows

isolation rooms with airlocks:

+ pressure

air from corridor can't get into room

isolation rooms with airlocks:

- pressure

air from room can't get into corridor

physical means of controlling microbial growth

1. heat

2. filtration

3. cold

4. high pressure

5. desiccation (drying)

6/ osmotic pressure

7. radiation

steriliaztion achieved by heat

hot air 160-180 degree C for 1-2 hrs.

autoclaving (moist heat) 121 degree C with 15 pounds per square inch for 15 mins. can kill C. botulinum spores (industry standard)

other methods to achieve sterilization

1. irradiation (gamma or UV)

2. filtration

3. chemicals

complications with irradiation and filtration

irradiation- can't penetrate too dep, not effective

filtration- good for fluids, filters through viruses so that only virus needed for antivirus is needed

important determinant of efficiency of sterilization

whether or not object to be sterilized is free of organic matter ie. blood, fecal material, tissue

spore test

test ability of autoclaving to inactivate bacterial spores- no growth after a succesful autoclaving

spore test process

ampule containing nutrient media and spores of non-pathogenic bacteria are autoclaved with object to be sterilized.

then ampule is incubated to test for growth

spore test result determination

growth (lack of sterilization) is indicated by a change in the pH of the ampule growth media seen as a colour change

bacteria has germinated and the growing or vegetative bacteria are using nutrients in the medium and producing acid or alkali compounds that change the pH

negative test/ sterile- left

positive test/ not sterile- right

chemical means of controlling growth


chlorine and iodine can sterilize if used well

chemical means of controlling growth


sterilize very well

used in balming liquid; we put worms in to denature proteins

ex. glutaraldehyde or cidex

chemical means of controlling growth

ethylene oxide

gas that sterilizes

used in industry, very poisonous


strong oxidizer, sterilizes

most used and useful disinfectants in everyday health care situations


iodine adn chlorine


avaialbel as tincture (solution in alcohol) or as an iodaohor ( comb. of iodine and organic molecule which releases iodine slowly)

eg. Betadine


strong oxidizing agent eg. chlorox


kill bacteria and fungi but not endospores adn non-developed viruses

alcohol mechanism

mechanism is protein denaturation and disruption of the liid membranes


just takes away dirt on skin. we have bacteria inside our skin, injections carry the risk of hitting those bacteria and causing infection

isopropanol= rubbing alcohol

better than ethanol b/c it doesn't evaporate as fast

optimal conc. ethanol

70% denaturation needs water to work

alcohol no good?

not good for treating wounds, as they cause a coagulation of proteins, creating an environment where the bacteria can grow inside the "scab"

relative resistance of microorganisms to chemical agents

relative resistance of microorganisms to chemical agents

endospores, mycobacteria, cysts of vegetative protozoa, vegetative protozoa, gram negative bacteria, fungi, naked viruses, gram positive bacteria, enveloped viruses