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109 Cards in this Set

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a community of bacteria that forms on surfaces of our body parts ex. plaque on teeth

biofilm complications

biofilm makes it hard to treat bacterial infections as all the biofilm has to be scraped


sum total of all chemical reactions within an organism


release energy


store energy


chemical reactions that release energy, breakdown of organic compounds

catabolism example

glucose (C6-H12-O6) -> CO2 + H2O release of ATP

ATP= energy


chemical reactions that require energy, building of complex organic molecules from simpler compounds (stores ATP)

anabolism example

formation of polysaccharides from simple sugars like glycogen from glucose

Reaction rates

temperature dependent, higher the temp, higher the reaction rate

reaction rates drawbacks of too high a temp

high temp. may kills cells- denaturation of proteins

Enzymes and reactions

Reaction rates can only be a certain temp b/c reactions occur in the body, enzymes help to catalyze these, so temp. needed ins't as much as what would be needed in outside environment


Large protein molecules- biological catalysts

Make chemical reactions happen 100 million faster

Enzymes- Substrates

substrate specific

have suffix "ase"

Enzymes and cofactors

Enzymes may need cofactors, such as metal ions like zinc, magnesium

Enzymes and recycling

Enzymes are recyclable, unchanged during reaction

Factors that affect enzymes


too high a temp. can denature enzymes

Factors that affect enzymes


some enzymes only work at certain pH ranges

Factors that affect enzymes


are there equal amounts of substrate and enzymes, is it efficient

Factors that affect enzymes

Salt concentration

salt can suppress water but enzymes need water to function

Factors that affect enzymes


can inhibit the growth of bacteria.

silver dressings can inhibit infections for burn patients

Energy for microbes

most microbes use carbs as primary source for production of energy

glucose is the most common nutrient source

Process by which glucose is used:

cellular respiration




glucose processes and glycolysis

both cellular respiration and fermentation use glycolysis where the final product is pyruvate

ex. Embden-Meyerhorf Pathway (produces ATP)

Aerobic respiration

produces more ATP than anaerobic processes

about 38 ATP from 1 glucose molecue

Aerobic bacteria growth

aeriobic bacteria usually can grow faster b/c they can make more ATP

about 38 ATP from 1 glucose molecue

obligate aerobes

bacteria that need oxygen in order to grow

Anaerobic respiration

Less ATP produced than aerobic respiration

About 2-4 ATP

Anaerobic bacteria growth

usually slower b/c of minimal ATP production

Obligate Anaerobes

bacteria that can only grow w/o oxygen


is an important biological process

does not need O2 but can occur in presence of O2

produces small amounts of ATP b/c energy is not released in end product, it remains in bonds

Fermentation products

1. Lactic Acid

2. CO2

3. alcohol

4. yogurt

5. yeast

Energy sources other than glucose

Lipids (fats)

broken down by lipases

fatty acids and glycerol which enter Krebs Cycle

after Krebs, ATP is produced

Energy sources other than glucose


broken down by proteases, ends up in Krebs cycle

after Krebs, ATP is produced

Factors affecting bacterial growth

physical factors: temperature


cold loving

-5 to +15 C

wont cause too much infection

Factors affecting bacterial growth

physical factors: temperature


20-30 C

ex. listeria

Factors affecting bacterial growth

physical factors: temperature


25-45 C

most pathogens

our body temo is 37 C, thus mesophiles will grow at the same temp as our bodies

Factors affecting bacterial growth

physical factors: temperature


typically grow in hot springs; heat loving

not animal harbouring

45-70 C

Factors affecting bacterial growth

physical factors: temperature


70-110 C

Listeria monocytogenes


gram + bacillus, non-spore forming

Listeria monocytogenes

oxygen and growth

facultatively anaerobic

facultatively anaerobic

can grow with or w/o oxygen

will grow on anything

Listeria monocytogenes

is it motile

Listeria monocytogenes is very motile

Listeria monocytogenes

temp. range for growth

3-42 C

Listeria monocytogenes

pH range for growth

greater than/equal 5.5-9.5

Listeria monocytogenes

salt concentration range for growth

can grow in high concentrations of NaCl, up to 10%

Listeria monocytogenes

Growth on BAP

grows well on BAP

Listeria monocytogenes

normal habitat

widely distributed in nature, soil is probably the natural reservoir

enter animal intestines through contaminated feed

Listeria monocytogenes


survives in low temp., high acidity and salt concetrations

Listeria monocytogenes

meat packaging

listeria can easily contaminate areas that may com into contact with meat that will be packed

Listeria monocytogenes

clinical presentation in animals

-CNS infections

- In goats and cattle, "circling disease"

- Septic Abortion

Listeria monocytogenes

clinical presentation in man

-food borne disease

-CNS infections/ death

- abortion

Circling disease

deterioration of CNS, making goats and cattle only walk in circles

Septic Abortion

the spontaneous abortion of animals

Listeria monocytogenes


ingestion of contaminated food

invasion of bacteria through gastric epithelial barrier.

has a protein (ActA) that changes the cytoskeleton of gastric wall to rocket itself, moving from cell to cell

Listeria monocytogenes

pathogenesis style



white blood cells that are really good at fighting bacteria, eating them up.

Listeria monocytogenes and macrophages

Listeria can survive and grow i splenic and hepatic macrophages

macrophages has a phagolysosome, where bacteria are exposed to certain enzymes and chemicals that eats up bacteria, Listeria counteracts this by destroying the phagosome before it becomes phagolysosome with listerolysin

Listeria monocytogenes

destroying cell membranes

aside from listerolysin, Listeria monocytogenes produces two other hemolysins

Listeria monocytogenes

clinical infection




Listeria monocytogenes


hard to locate where Listeria is from b/c of the long incubation period.

also, hard to catch symptoms

Listeria monocytogenes and Age

if young and have good immunity, there is high chance for survival

Not the same for oder people and immunocompromised people

Listeria monocytogenes

mortality of CNS infection


difficult to diagnose meningitis

Listeria monocytogenes

pregnant women

pregnant women are immunocompromised b/c immunsystem has to change b/c of proteins from fetus

influenza-like bacteremic illness can result in abortion or stillbirth

Listeria monocytogenes



ex. coleslaw, soft unpasteurized cheese, cold cuts, milk, mushrooms, prepackaged salads


tracking bacteria and its causes

Listeria monocytogenes


hard to track b/c of long incubation period and underreporting

Listeria monocytogenes


responsible for about 1700 invasive disease in the US yearly

fatal 33% of cases even with proper treatment

maple leaf 2008: 57 severe infections 23 deaths

bacterial growth-pH

pH 5-8 for most human pathogens

too high or too low pH can denature enzymes

bacterial growth- osmotic pressure

balance of particle concentrations in and around cells

bacterial growth- osmotic pressure

isotonic solution-flacid

same concentrations in and around the cell

bacterial growth- osmotic pressure

hypotonic solution- turgid

fewer particles/ml in solution than inside of a cell

water enters cell to even osmolality, causing cells to explode

bacterial growth- osmotic pressure

hypertonic solution-plasmolyzed

more particles/ ml in solution than in cell

water leaves the inside of cell, causing the cell to dehydrate, cell membrane collapses. PLASMOLYSIS

PLASMOLYSIS and the food industry

salt or sugar solution used to preserve food by shrinking cell walls that create energy, less bacterial growth

bacterial growth-gaseous requirements

strict aerobe

bacteria will only grow on surface of the oxygen as there is only oxygen available at the surface

bacterial growth-gaseous requirements

facultative aerobe

will grow on top as well as through out vial, as it can grow with or w/o oxygen

bacterial growth-gaseous requirements

strict anaerobe

no oxygen at all

bacterial growth-gaseous requirements


can grow with some oxygen but not as much as in the air.

will grow in the vial with the gas

bacterial growth-gaseous requirements

aerotolerant anaerobe

can grow for a bit where there's some oxygen

left to right

strict aerobe, facultative anaerobe, strict anaerobe, aerotolerant anaerobe, microaerophile

aerobe and anaerobe co-existance

aerobes and anaerobes can coexist as aerobes will use up all oxygen and anaerobes can begin to grow

Bacterial growth

Chemical factors

sources of C,N,O,S,P and trace elements

sources of organic growth factors, provide environments bacteria can grow in

bacterial growth: environmental factors

intracellular growth

intracellular organisms

evade defence mechanisms (WBC)

need to use antibiotics that penetrate host cell membranes in order to treat infection

some can't be grown on artificial media, must be cultured in living cell culture

dependant on host cell for energy, lack enzymes for atp production ex. Chlamydia

bacterial reproduction

bacterial reproduction

binary fission

bacterial reproduction

generation time

-time for on bacterium to divide into two

-dependant on media and growth conditions

-aerobic bacteria usually grow much faster than anaerobic bacteria (higher production of ATP)

which grows fastest? left to right

mycobacterium tuberculosis, escherichia coli, mycobacterium leprae, treponoma pallidum, staphylococcus aereus

Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aereus, mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterium leprae, treponema pallidum

how do we express bacterial #

using log expression ex. 1x 10^8

bacterial growth 
kinetics- Lag Phase

bacterial growth

kinetics- Lag Phase

bacteria are trying to organize itself for growth

bacterial growth 
exponential phase

bacterial growth


exponential phase

growth is exponential as bacteria become ready. They are most susceptible to antibiotics at this time

bacterial growth
stationary phase

bacterial growth


stationary phase

no more growth, bacteria start dying off maybe b/c they use up all their energy

bacterial growth

bacterial growth



bacteria start to slowly die


bacteria like to live in communities

peercentage of human infection that involves biofilms


biofilm dynamics

bacteria aren't stuck in biofilm, they can leave and start a new focus of infection

biofilm make up

slimy matrix with polysaccharides, proteins, DNA, bacteria

biofilm and immunity

WBC can't penetrate biofilms

biofilms and antibiotics

antibiotics are ineffective against bacteria living in biofilms

bacterial culture: how to grow bacteria in the lab

need nutrient material (solid, semi-solid, or liquid)

nutrient medium should be sterile to start with

bacterial culture: agar

complex polysaccharide from algae for solid structure matrix- looks like gelatin

often add animal blood (sheep, horse) for nutrients

bacterial culture: colonies

bacteria grow in colonies- piles of bacteria where the original bacterial was placed on the surface of the agar plate

bacterial culture

use broth or semi-solid growth media, like agar with added nutrients and/or selective agents i.e. chemicals/ antimicrobials

different formulations used for culture of different bacteria

bacterial culture and human pathogens

complex media is often used for most human pathogens

ex. blood, chocolate agar- which is heated blood that turns brown. blood is denatured

bacterial culture: hemolysis

breakdown of blood cells in agar plates

used for presumptive bacterial identification of some bacterial species

bacterial culture: hemolysis


partial breakdown of RBC around and under colony.

greening due to methemoglobin

bacterial culture: hemolysis


total breakdown of RBC around and under colony, caused by streptolysin S and O

creates a clearing around the colony

bacterial culture: hemolysis


no breakdown of RBC around or under colony

no growth or change

bacterial culture

selective media

supress growth of unwanted bacteria and support growth of desired bacteria

helps us find pathogens

bacterial culture

differential media

ingredients in media allow us to tentatively identify bacteria, at least into major groups

most bacteria wil grow

MacConkey plate

example of selective of differential agar

inhibits growth of Gram + and contains lactose to differentiate between lactose fermenting and non-fermenting Gram negatives