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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

HIV ia a

RNA retrovirus

HIV infects...

CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells

HIV progresses to...

AIDS- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndome

HIV has no...


HIV Subtypes

1. HIV-1: has around 11 subtypes (clades), major type of HIV

2. HIV: found in West Africa, much slower infection

HIV originates from

SIV Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

HIV-1 origination

monkey-chimpanzee/ gorilla-human

HIV-2 origination


earliest documented case in 1959 in Africa called

skinny disease

HIV is a global


more than .... carry the virus

40 million

only...are officially diagnosed


every 24 hours the infected numbers


every 24 hours...die


leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa

2.5 million AIDS deaths

contrary to belief it is transmitted

heterosexually as well

HIV envelope

1. a glycolipid envelope w/spikes called gp 120

2. means it is easy to inactivate

HIV has two strands of

identical RNA

HIV has what enzyme

1. reverse transcriptase

2. allows it to reproduce in the host

AZT and HIV antivirals...

targeted reverse transcriptase

HIV must attach to both ... for infection to occur

CD4+ and chemokine receptors

once in the host cell, viral RNA is..

released and transcribed into DNA by reverse transcriptase

newly formed viral DNA is incorporated into human DNA chromosome by the enzyme


new DNA can either

produce more virus or can remain latent as a provirus

of those infected % individuals never produces disease

5% remain latent as a provirus

HIV can undergo rapid changes in

antigenic makeup which helps it evade the host defences- inducing drug resistance

diagnosis for HIV

1. repeatedly reactive tests for HIV antibodies

2. Virus PCR: virus load from blood

Monitoring HIV: viral load

keep track of number of HIV particles in blood

monitoring HIV: CD4+ cells

1. below 200/nm^3 is indicative of clinical AIDS

2. this occurs because CD4+ cells only live for 2 days when infected

3. virus inhibit new production of T cells

stage A infection

infection is asymptomatic or causes chronic swollen lymph nodes

stage B infection

persistent infections by opportunists like C. albicans, VZV, cryptosoridia, hairy lekoplakia

stage C= clinical AIDS

defined by "indicator conditions" such as C. albicans infections of the respiratory mucosa, CMV eye infections, TB, Pneumocystis pneumonia, toxoplasmosis of the brain and kaposi's sarcoma

mild, flu-like symptoms for HIV may go...


oral candidiasis


1. usually caused by C. albicans

2. most common infection is thrush

Oral leukoplakia


1. usually asymptomatic, no treatment needed

2. characterized by white lesions EBV


gingivitis and periodontitis


1. severe pain

2. bleeding gums

3. loosening of teeth

ocular infections with HIV

very common, ranging from bening HIV retinopathy to sight threatening viral infections

most common HOV ocular infection

CMV retinitis, very serious

Varicella-zoster retinitis

severe necrotizing retinitis

leading cause of mortality and morbidity in HIV infected patients

HIV pulmonary disease

most dangerous pulmonary HIV disease

Pneumocystis jirovechi Pneumonia


1. insidious onset

2. early diagnosis and treatment important

3. dry cough- no purulent sputum

antibiotic for PJP

trimethoprim-sulfa "septra"

first infectious complication for HIV

mycobacterial diseases

HIV increases reactivation of

latent infections

HIV patients have ... annual risk of developing active disease


HIV increases the risk of

symptomatic disease/ mycobacteria diseases after infection

HIV increases dissemination of


kaposi's sarcoma associated with infection of


Kaposi's Sarcoma treated by

radio theraphy

Kaposi's disease defining illness of


usually seen in infected homosexual men

vascular neoplastic disorder

kaposi's sarcoma appears as

cutaneous red-purple nodules or plaques

sites usually affected by Kasopi's Sarcoma

legs, feet, mucous membranes, hard palate, nose, trunk and scalp


1. contact with bodily fluid

2. sexual contact

3. blood contamination from needles, transplants and blood transfusions

3. transmission more effective if sores are present

blood as bodily fluid of contamination

has highest viral load

100000+ viruses/ml

semen as a bodily fluid of contamination

not as high as blood, around 50 viruses/ml

vertical transmission of HIV

1. pregnancy, delivery and breast feeding

2. artificial insemination: semen contaminated with HIV

prevention of neonate infection

1. antivirals during pregnancy and the first 6 months


combination of anti-HIV medicines

problem with treatments

rapid development of resistance

when do we treat

as soon as infection is found

how to check for resistance?

looking through HIV genome sequence


1. uses combination of two RT inhibitors

2. can be used PrEP or pre-exposure, giving 75% protection

3. use for actual treatment for the disease in combination w/other drugs

cure for HIV?

there is no cure for HIV