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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

relationship between cardiovascular and lymphatic systems

once something infects the lymphatics, it can reach the vasculature

cardiovascular infections can be infections of the

1. blood

2. heart and its valves

3. vessel walls

systemic infections are

disseminated infections

bacteremia is the presence of

bacteria in the blood

septicemia/ sepsis

presence of bacteria in blood and systemic response to infection

septic shock caused by both

gram + and -

septic shock most dangerous from gram


why more dangerous when gram -

because gram negatives release LPS, causing endotoxic shock

how do bacteria get into the blood/lymph?

1. breach of the body's natural first line of defence- skin

2. infection and inflammation of tissues- openings to inside of body

how do we find out if there are bacteria in bloodstream?

take blood culture bottles, take anaerobe and aerobe tests

why take multiple vials to test for positive blood cultures?

to make sure that one is infected, usually blood sample can be contaminated by S. epidermidis.

common organisms found in positive blood cultures

1. S. aureus and epidermidis

2. S. pneumoniae

3. enterococci

4. alpha-streptococci

5. gram negatives

bacteremia can lead to

1. spontaneous learing of bacteria

2. infection of other parts of the body

3. sepsis

4. septic shock

infections of the heart muscle can arise from...

microorganisms in the bloodstream

sub-acute bacterial endocarditis

infections of valves w/bacteria from the bloodstream

the bacteria forms ... in the heart


sub-acute bacterial endocarditis usually occurs to people with..

abnormal valves

sub-acute bacterial endocarditis symptoms

1. fever

2. weakness

3. heart murmur

Usually caused by

1. alpha hemolytic stretococci

2. S. epidermidis

3. enterococci which are usually part of normal flora- called wimpy bacteria

acute bacterial endocarditis is a

rapidly progressive damage to heart valves

acute bacterial endocarditis often occurs when

open heart surgery has been done and the wound is contaminated

acute bacterial endocarditis usually caused by

S. aureus and other pyogenic bacteria (very aggressive)


inflammation of heart sac or pericardium

pericarditis often caused by

S. pyogenes

Pericarditis may also caused by

viruses such as a virus named "Bornholm disease"

normal heart vs heart wth purulent inflammation

atherosclerosis causes what in the arteries?

over growth of smooth muscle tissue, making artery opening small

atherosclerosis believed to be caused by

a multi-pathogen load


inflammation of the lymphatic channels

lymphangitis can lead to


spleen function

remove contaminants and cells

produces opsonizing antibodies

reasons for splenectomy

1. trauma, damage

2. thrombocytopenia


where spleen is sequestering platelets

patients without a spleen are very susceptible to infection with

encapsulated organisms

need to ...before splenectomy if possible

need for antibiotic...



Septicemia w/ S. pneumoniae is common in

asplenic individuals

Bacillus anthracis causes


Borrelia bergdorferi causes

lyme disease

Yersinia pestis causes

black death

borrelia burgdorferi is a

microaerophilic spicrochaete

causes erythema migrans or

bulls eyes rash

borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted through

ticks which live in mice and deer

ticks must be attached for... before... is transferred

24 hours


Borrelia can live for years in untreated patients within

1. joints

2. nervous system

3. skin

common complications with Borrelia burgdorferi

arthritis and neurological disorders

Yernsinia pestis is a

facultatively anaerobic Gram - bacillus

yernsinia pestis can live in


yersinia pestis causes two syndromes

pneumonic and bubonic plague

transmission or bubonic plague


transmission for pneumonic plague

human transmission

pneumonic plague can start as bubonic plague where a

lymph node is infected and bursts, spreading to lungs where it becomes pneumonic plague

plague can be treated if in time with

tetracycline or streptomycin

Pasteurella mullocida is a

facultatively anerobic Gram-negative bacillus

found often in...

most infectious from...

often found in dog and cat mouths

most infectious are cat bites

pasteurella multocida can cause

sepsis and septic shock

pasteurella needs ... before tests results come back

acute treatment with antibiotic

Viral Hemorrhagic fevers are mostly

zoonotic diseases

first symptoms of viral hemorrhagic fevers are

1. fevers

2. chills

3. headache

4. nausea

5. vomitting

viral hemorrhagic fevers are usually followed by

jaundice or liver damage

Yellow Fever caused by

RNA virus called flaviviridae

yellow fever transmitted by


yellow fever is characterized by

hepatic, renal and myocardial injury, and hemorrhages

yellow fever only occurs in

S. America and Sub-Saharan Africa

Yellow fever natural reservoir are


yellow fever diagnosis are done by


yellow fever treatment

no treat men but there is live attenuated vaccine

Dengue and Yellow fever have the same..

viral origins and transmission

dengue is endemic in

Caribbean and tropics

Dengue has ... subtypes


dengue also called

breakbone fever

dengue symptoms

1. fever

2 muscle pain

3 joint pain

4. rashes

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever is more severe than... and can cause... in hours

more severe than Dengue fever and causes shock

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever is caused by

reinfection of another type of dengue within two yrs of initial infection

Zika Virus is cuased by

RNA, enveloped virus of Flaviviridae family

Zika first seen in

rhesus monkey

Zika linked with

Guillan Barre syndrome and microcephaly

Zika treatment

no vaccine or antiviral

Ebola Virus caused by

Enveloped RNA virus- a filovirus

Ebola reservoir are


Ebola transmission

direct contact of bodily fluids

Ebola treatment

aggressive supportive treat ment with IV fluids

spread of Ebola down to these facors

1. lack of education

2. lack of health facilities

3. movement of people in West Africa

4. traditions of caring for the dead

ebola symptoms

1. headache

2. myalgia

3. sore throat

4. red eyes

5. nausea

6. vomitting

7. diarrhea

8. rashes

9. chest pain