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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

vaccination discovery

attempt to deliberately induce immunity

it was discovered that milkmaids who contracted cowpox was immune to smallpox

Jenner inoculated people with cowpox to protect against smallpox

immune memory

recovery from some infectious disease means protection later

immune system

body's defence system agianst:

1. pathogens

2. cancers

3. organ transplants

immune system functions to:

1. keep organisms out

2. remove microorganisms that get in

3. combat microorganisms that remain inside

4. fight cancer

well- balanced immune should be able to distinguished between

self and non-self/ pathogens

immune system

innate/ natural immunity- non specific

1st line

1. skin

2. mucous membranes and secretions

3. normal flora

immune system

innate/ natural immunity- non specific

2nd line

1. innate immune cells

2. inflammation

3. complement

4. antimicrobial substances

Immune system

adaptive/ acquired immunity- specific responses

3rd line

specialized lymphocytes

1. B cells- produce antibodies

2.T cells

- helper T cells CD4

-killer T cells CD8


physical barrier between outside and inside environment of our bodies

mucous membranes

thin and permeable barriers

mechanical removal

1. ciliated cells in the respiratory tract- ciliary escalator

2. goblet cells produce mucous

3. mucous/ other secretions flush away microorganisms

4. prevent pathofen binding to host cells

secretions: tears, saliva

ex. lysozyme- break down peptidoglycan

secretions: crevicular fluid

fluid that flows into gingival serum between teeth

similar composition to blood serum- the immune cells

secretions: gastric juices


urine/vaginal sevretions

flushing action, pH balance

normal flora compete for...

space and nutrients

normal flora in mouth

stahplycoccus epidermidis

lactobacillus sp.

most abundant: alpha streptococci

normal flora in skin

candida albicans

most abundant: staphlycoccus epidermmidis

normal flora in GI

escherichia coli

lactobacillus sp.

most abundant: bacteroides sp.

cuts lead to an...

inflammatory resonse

SHARP acronym



Altered Function



inflammatory response to cuts

if cut is infected, WBC is increased to mediate the immune response

sore throat due to swollen lymph nodes

LN are where the immune cells multiply in preparation to mount an effective immune response


localized tissue response to infection or injury


mixture of dead cells, neutrophils and body fluids


accumulation of pus- pustules and boils

examples of pyogenic or pus producing bcteria

streptococcus pyogenes

stahplycoccus aereus

innate immune cells are also called

WBC or leukocytes

WBC part of granulocytes or PMNL- polymorphonuclear leukocytes


2. basophils

3. mast cells

4. eosinophils

what do granulocytes or PMNL do?

direct destruction of pathogens

antigen presenting cells?

1. monocytes

2. macrophages

3. dendritic cells

natural killer cells

destroy infected host cells

neutrophils make up how much of total WBC?


what can neutrophils do?

eat cells- phagocytosis

have vacuoles containing granules with anti-microbial proteins that function to break down microorganisms and inflammatory mediators

neutrophils job

first to arrive and initiate phagocytosis at the infected site

neutrophils life span

short life span less than one day b/c it doesn't have a mitochondaria

what happens when neutrophils die?

they form nets when they die; a sticky DNA trap for bacteria

monocyte/ macrophage

make up how much of total EBC


monocyte/ macrophage job

professional phagocyte, very efficient, eats microbes and damaged cells

breaks down the infectious pathogen into parts and present "parts" on the cell surface

monocyte/ macrophage

what are these parts they present

the parts are antigens, thus monocyte/ macrophage is an antigen presenting cell

monocyte/ macrophage

in blood circulation, called


monocyte/ macrophage

in tissue called


dendritic cell


professional antigen presenting cell; phagocytic

important role in activation of adaptive immunity- the specific immune response

dendritic cell

how does it do its job?

carries antigen from tissues to the lymph glands where the T and B lymphocytes

presents antigen to activate B and t lymphocytes


major role in defence against parasitic infection


secretes cytolytic enzymes upon contact with pathogens

cells circulate in blood until recruited to inflamed tissue


found in blood

similar to function of mast cells

release histamine from granules

mast cells

most abundant in submucosal tissues

cells surface receptor for immunoglobulin E IgE

important role in Type I allergic reactions

release histamine once IgE receptor is activates

leukocyte granules contain

chemicals and enzymes to break down pathogens and stimulate other immune cells

lytic granules

contain digestive enzymes ex. lysozyme, to breakdown endocytosed pathogens

secretory granules

1. function to kill pathogens that are too big to eat (parasites)

2. contain chemical messenger substances that attract other immune cells to the site- chemokines

3. also has histamine- an inflammatory mediator

natural Killer cells

lymphocytes without immunological memory

natural Killer cells

first line of defence against intracellular pathogens

1. virally infected cells

2. intracellular bacteria/ protozoa

3. cancer cells

natural Killer cells

how does it destroy cells

release cytolytic granules that allow for targeted cell destruction

natural Killer cells

which cells are destroyed?

infected cells

microbial antigen presented in MHC I

natural Killer cells

which cells are destroyed?


virally infected cells which have lost surface expression of MHC I

natural Killer cells

which cells are destroyed?

cancer cells

cancer cells that have lost MHC I

MHC= major histocompatability complex

receptor on surface of all normal nucleated cells

MHC I and healthy cells

"self" protein is bound in the MHC I

MHC I and sick cells

virus infected or cancer cells may have a foreign peptide in the MHC I

MHC I and immune response

provides a way for cytotoxic T cells to scan and detect intracellular infection

NK cells detect cells that are not showing self-peptides and kill them

in humans MHC =

Human Leukocyte Antigen or HLA, but we just use MHC


found only on macrophages, dendritic cells and B lymphocytes

all antigen-presenting cells

MHC II and the immune response

bind and present antigen (peptides) to T helper cells in order to initiate adaptive immune response


found where?

on all nucleated cells vs. only on apcs


what does it present?

presents endogenous vs exogenous peptides


activates what?

CD8 cytotoxic cells vs activates CD4 helper cells


when a cell engulfs a solid particle


the migration of cells across endothelium through cell junctions


the directed movement of cells in a concentration gradient

phagocytosis by APC

1.bacterium binds to receptor on phagocyte

2. phagocytosis-bacterium is engulfed by cell membrane

3. bacterium inside the cell vesicle (phagosome)

4. fusion of lytic granule and phagosome- phagolysosomes

5. digestion of bacterium by enzymes

6.transport of bacterial fragments to cell surface

7. release of waste materials


small proteins that are made by cells, and function to change or to communicate with other cells


cytokines that are used for attracting other cells to the site of infection


cytokines that alter the function of other cells

how do phagocytes know to attack and kill

pattern recognition receptors

toll like receptors TLR recognize different molecules from pathogens

Triggering TLRs leads to

chemokine release

calls in help from the ciculation

Triggering TLRs leads to

proinflammatory cytokine release

activates neighbouring cells

Triggering TLRs leads to

increased microbiocidal activity

destroy ingested pathogens

bacteria fighting back

1. evasion of phagocyte binding

2. bacterial resistance to phagocytosis- can kill phagocytes

3. some microbes can even grow in phagocytes, some prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion


a substance, usually foreign, capable of provoking an immune response

ex. bacteria, virus, protozoa,etc.


the specific site on an antigen recognized by immune cells or antibodies

antibody- immunoglobulin or lg

protein produced by B lymphocytes that recognizes a specific epitope on an antigen

leads to removal of that antigen

complement (c) system

a group of serum proteins produced by the liver in the circulation to defend against pathogens

three complement pathways

1. classical

2. alternative

3. lectin

3 ways to activate complement cascade

how does complement work?

complement kills pathogens in the blood circulation by cells lysis

it does this by creating a MAC

MAC Membrane attack complex

forms a pore structure which allows fluid (water) to move freely across membrane and osmotically lyse the cell

classical pathway

triggered by antigen-antibody complex

alternative pathway

triggered by lipid-carbohydrates (LPS)

Lectin pathway

triggered by mannose

C products


opsonization- coats bacteria to enhance phagocytosis

C products


chemoattractant- recruits phagocytes

C products

C3a and C5a

anphylatoxins- cause histamine release


membrane Attack complex- kills pathogens

interferons IFN

produced by virally activated cells

defence molecule against virus

antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)

production triggered by activation of TLRs

broad spectrum

AMP example

dermcidin- produced by sweat glands

defensins- produced by neutrophils and macrophages

thrombocidin- produced by platelets

acute phase proteins

produced in the liver during infections: levels indicate infection

C- reactive protein

marks bacteria for enhanced phagocytosis- opsonization