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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How can the quest for the link between sport performance and personality be described?
Unabated (without any reduction in intensity)
What kind of model is the psychoanalytic model?
Intrapsychic Model
What has been the focus of the psychoanalytic or Freudian theory?
Pessimism and pathology. (Though this preoccupation with abnormality has limited applicability with normal behavior)
What is the personality Big Five derived from?
Extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, openness to experience. (from number of studies and methodologies) From McCrae and Costa
What is meant by the phrase "shot-gun" research?
Grab the nearest, most convenient personality test, closet sports group without a theoretical basis.
What kinds of behaviors can tests measure?
Observable, Unobservable sample behavior (post, present, and future)
What does "empirical validity" refer to?
The 3 part data based determination of validity: content, criterion, construct
How can the phenomenon called "faking bad" on a psychological test be described?
Aberrant response pattern
Jonas, a researcher, has been criticized for failure to operationalize. What has Jonas done wrong?
Omit proper definition of terms, leading to flawed results. (this is a tendency in Sport Psychology)
What is the purpose of the "Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale" and the "Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding"?
Both are measures of the tendency to distort testing results.
How were the original norms for the MMPI obtained?
Psychiatric inpatients at the University of Minnesota Hospital. 400 individuals compared to about 700 control consisting of friends and family
Parsimoniously, what can be said about the utility of the 16PF in sport psychology research?
It was popular but produced inconsistent results. Used infrequently for last 2 decades. New version has not been of interest to Sport Psychologists.
Extraversion, anxiety, tough-mindedness, independence, and self-control are global factors assessed by which test?
Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI)
The Profile of Mood States scale has been very popular in sports and exercise. What can be said about its use outside those contexts?
Also widely applicable to psychology and medicine.
Generally speaking, what can be concluded about the various short forms of the Profile of Mood States?
No loss of psychometric soundness
Specifically, how does the Grove and Prapavessis short form of the Profile and Mood States differ from both the long form and the various short forms?
Added 5 items to assess self-esteem
What is the Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM) of Whelan and Meyers?
(never published) 6 item version of POMS
What are the subscales of the Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports?
Concentration, anxiety management, self-confidence, mental preparation, motivation, team emphasis
What is one of the virtues of the Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports?
The confidence and motivation scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency.
You are in need of a source which will offer critical reviews of psychological tests. Which resource would be most useful to you?
Mental Measurements Yearbooks (MMY)
What is "patting juba" and when was it engaged?
A rhythmic clapping of the hands as a substitute for musical instruments when they were not available.
African Americans represent roughly 14% of the total US population. Roughly speaking, when was this level of representation achieved in professional baseball, basketball, and football?
Baseball:1957, Basketball:1958, Football:1960
At least at the professional level,which sport is the most overrepresented proportionally by black players?
Ryan is a major league baseball scout and has to see if he can identify and sign more collegiate black baseball players. How fertile will he find the collegiate baseball scene?
Not particularly fertile
Speedie, an 8th grader on the track team, runs in distance races because he believes that he cannot compete with black runners in sprints. What would Harry Edwards say about Speedie?
(White man) has become chief victim of his own lie
What proportion of rosters of major league baseball are from the Dominican Republic?
100/830 12% (2006); 57/774 7% (1997)
What can be said about Jim Thorpe and Tom Longboat?
Great Native American Athletes
Which sport likely owes its origins to the Native Americans?
When did the Gay Games begin and how often are they held?
1982, every 4 years
What proportion of the rosters of major league baseball teams in the late 1990s was occupied by Hispanics?
According to the Tangen-Foster classification system, what two activities are viewed as the most dangerous?
Parachuting and Hangliding
"For the fitness obsessed, it is the ultimate leap beyond the New York marathon; for corporate Napoleons in search of new worlds to conquer, it is the ultimate hostile takeover." Which activity might elicit this quote?
Climbing Mt. Everest
At worst, what is the death rate in skydiving?
Slightly over 30 per year
What are you more likely to die from, a bee sting or skydiving?
Bee sting
Generally speaking, how can rock climbers be described?
Often loners, work in teams, predominantly anglo, usually professional in their sport
Physically, how can rock climbers be described?
As opposed to the notion that the human organism is a tension reducer by nature, what does Zuckerman suggest is most characteristic of humans?
Optimal Stimulation
Adam is a firstborn child. With regard to data on risk sport participants, what can be predicted about Adam?
He is less likely to play high risk sport
What are specific sources of stress among elite figure skaters?
Negative aspects of competition, negative significant-other relationships, demands or costs of skating, personal struggles, traumatic experiences
According to K. Anders Ericsson, exceptional performance is best explained in terms of what?
Inherent ability and deliberate practice
"Let me win. But if I cannot win, let me be brave in the attempt." These simple statements make up the oath of what?
Special Olympics
The International Paralympic Committee recognizes six categories of disabled athletes. Which is the one that encompasses the effects of thalidomide and dwarfism?
Les Autres
The ultimate competition for hearing impaired or deaf athletes is now known as what?
The Special Olympics are closely linked to the Kennedy name. What specific event seems to be most pivotal to this link?
Rosemary Kennedy was victim of a massive influenza virus and became mentally retarded due to complications.
The 2004 Paralympic Games were held in Athens, Greece. Participants there took part in how many different sports?
What is the most common injury among NBA Players?
ankle sprain
In the NBA, what is the most frequent injury?
ankle sprain
Ex-NFL lineman Dave Pear takes 3 dozen pills a day to control pain, tremors, and speech difficulties. Of his plight, what does Pear say?
"The NFL destroys families. I wish I never played"
The SIP fails to reveal a difference between male and female athletes with respect to catastrophizing. What does the SIP reveal about male and female nonathletes?
Females are more likely to catastrophize. Males cope easier.
What do the results from studies conducted by Bartholomew and his colleagues suggest about the SIP?
Doubts toward its validity
James Puffer has written about the "Faustian Mentality" associated with sport. What is he referring to?
Win-at-all-costs concerning athletic competition
Who introduced the anabolic-androgenic steroids the the sport world?
Old Soviet-bloc weight lifters
Anavar, dianabol, and winstrol are examples of what?
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS)
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has sophisticated equipment that is so precise, it can detect a droplet of a banned substance in a swimming pool. What can be said about this statement?
It leads to certain athletes dropping from competition.
Andre was a world class cyclist who died suddenly and mysteriously while apparently in the peak of his health. Analysis of his circulatory system upon autopsy shows that his blood was unusually thick and this may have contributed to his demise. Most likely, his death is attributable to what?
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Athletes will go to absurd lengths to beat the testing procedures for banned substances and procedures. One such practice with almost comical elements is the use of what?
Whizzinator: prosthetic penis with synthetic urine
When Jon Entine talks of the "coming of the cyber-athlete," he is making reference to what?
Gene doping
Kermit is a college football player. If he is like most of his peers who are playing collegiate sports, what is his drug of choice?
What can be said about creatine?
It is a nutritional supplement, and studies on it within sport have been equivocal
Partial evidence of problems associated with the NCAA drug testing program is illustrated by what?
Exorbitant money spent for only 1-2 dozen violators
"I am strong. I am invincible. I am women." those words come from a 1970s song sung by whom?
Helen Reddy
The Heraean Games were held every 4 years in ancient Greece, and were hosted by which city state?
Olympus (Olympia)
Alexandra, an ancient Greek is competing in the Heraean Games. In sport lingo of today, she was most probably competed as what?
Track and field?
Title IX legislation opened the doors for full-scale participation in athletics. What year was it enacted?
Title IX and the sport of wrestling?
Title IX lead to a drop from 65% to 30% of schools with wrestling teams
The Title IX Amendment to the Higher Education Act has been renamed to honor ________, the person who is said to have authored the legislation in 1972.
Patsy T Mink
Landmark studies of menstrual functioning and physical activity were conducted by whom?
Erdelyi and Zaharievo
Frisch has been the leading proponent of what?
Frisch's Hypothesis: lowering of a woman's body fat below a point produces biochemical changes leading to a cessation of menstrual periods.
Dan is obviously a male and an athlete. With regard to injury rates, what can be said about Dan as compared to females?
More injuries than females
Anorexic female athletes are what?
6.6% of college female athletes
By gender, the ratio per 100 of female to male anorexics in collegiate athletic programs appears to be what?
What's consistent about preschool games for females?
Games may still be played 4 or 5 years later but with little to no enjoyment
HIstorically, what can be said about the acceptability of softball as a sport for females
It is a less approved sport
Team American, a volleyball unit made up of the top junior female players of the country, finds itself down two sets to none. Most likely, Team American will do what?
Lose the game
Jane is being a leader, engaging in dominance and assertive behaviors as point guard on her basketball team. In sex role orientation terminology, she is engaging in what?
Instrumental Behavior
Psychological androgyny...
is a state in which the individual encompasses the best of both gender roles and expectations including expressive and instrumental behavior
The media...
makes male hegemony (implicit powers of social authority and leadership granted to men) a thing
What can be said about the media coverage allotted to females in the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games
Generally consistent with participation
Why were the 1968 Olympic Games Significant?
Gender testing was implemented on an experimental basis
experience similar stress to other athletes
In 1939, a significant event in youth sport took place. What was it?
Start of Little League Baseball
What can be said about little league baseball?
Started by Carl Statz. Now international with 206 million boys. Corresponding softball has 365,000
After Little League baseball was instituted, it came under fire from many critics, particularly in the mid-1950s. What did the research at that time have to say about its consequences?
Not real. Critic's claims were false
What organization created the original Youth Fitness Test used to assess children?
American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD)
What can be said about the numbers of youth taking part in interscholastic sports?
7+ million
In a 1980 study by McElroy and Kirkendall, the major motive for sport participation voiced by over 2,000 youth in their study was what?
Personal Performance
Trophies, newspaper citations, and the like are what?
extrinsic rewards
The percentage of youth sports fitting into the competence oriented category of the AFA formulation is what?
The 10,000 youth surveyed in the AFA study of youth sport indicated the changes they would make fall into two major categories- coaching and what?
Conflict with other activites
In terms of dropping out of youth sport, concern was expressed among the respondents about conflict with other activities. What was the number one conflict?
Schedules did conflict with studies
What can be said about Hall of Fame hockey star Bobby Orr?
His parents didn't say he was going to be professional
What is competitive stress?
A negative emotional state generated when a child feels unable to respond adequately to competitive performance demands
What can be said about competitive stress?
It is a complex phenomenon that may occur at any time
What can be said about high competitive trait anxious youth?
The are as physically talented as low-CTA peers but report lower expectations of success
What can be said about children raised in homes with substantial parental inconsistencies in the usage of reward and punishment?
Tendency toward erratic behavior
It is not unusual that parents evaluate the athletic talent of their children at a point that may be somewhat beyond reality, leading to a description of these children as what?
"Mozarts in cleats"
Charlie is a loud but not abusive parent of a good athlete and he is taking pain in what is referred to as "Silent Sunday". What characterizes his participation?
What can be said about trainers in youth sport?
Should use positive reinforcement, with consistent improvement
In Istvan Balyi's Long Term Athletic Development (LTAD) model, what can be said about the Training to Win Stage?
18 and up; level of engagement goes up on all dimensions. Ratio of train to competition is 25:75
"Those who know how to win are much more numerous than those who know how to make a proper use of their victories." This quote is attributed to whom?
Polybius (Roman Historian)