• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Identify: demography
the study of human population
Identify: fertility
-the incidence of childbearing in a country's population
- demographers describe fertility using the "crude birth rate" (see other card)
Identify:crude birth rate
the number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population
Identify: mortality
-the incidence of death in a country's population
-demographers measure mortality using both the "crude death rate" and the "infant mortality rate" (see other cards)
Identify: crude death rate
the number of deaths in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population
Identify: infant mortality rate
the number of deaths among infants under one year of age for each 1,000 live births in a given year
Identify: life expectancy
the average life span of a country's population
Identify: migration
-the movement of people into and out of a specified territory
- the "net migration rate" is the difference between the in-migration rate and the out-migration
Identify: sex ratio
the number of males for every 100 females in a nation's population
Identify: age-sex pyramid
the graphic representation` of the age and sex of a population
Identify: demographic transition theory
a thesis that links population patterns to a society's level of technological development
Identify: zero population growth
the level of reproduction that maintains population at a steady level
Identify: urban ization
the concentration of population into cities
Identify: metropolis
a large city that socially and economically dominates an urban area
Identify: suburbs
urban areas beyond the political boundaries of a city
Identify: megaloplis
a vast urban region containing a number of cities and their surrounding suburbs
Identify: "gemeinschaft"
a type of social organization in which people are closely tied by kinship and tradition
Identify: "Gesellschaft"
a type of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self-interest
Identify: urban ecology
the study of the link between the physical and social dimensions of cities
Identify: Lous Wirth
saw large, dense, hetrogeneous populations creating an impersonal and self-interested, though tolerant, way of life
Identify: ecology
the study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment
Identify: natural environment
Earth's surface and atmosphere, including living organisms, air, water, soil, and other resources necessary to sustain life
Identify: ecosystem
a system composed of the interaction of all living organisms and their natural enviornment
Identify: environmental deficit
profound long-term harm to the natural environment caused by humanity's focus on short-term material affluence
Identify: rain forests
regions of dense forestation, most of which circle the globe close to the equator
Identify: global warming
a rise in Earth's average temperature due to an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmoshere
Identify: environmental racism
patterns that make environmental hazards greatest for poor people, especially minorities
Identify: ecologically sustainable culture
a way of life that meets the needs of the present generation without threatening the environmental legacy of future generations
Expound upon population growth
In general, rich nations grow almost as much from immigration as from natural increase; poorer nations grow almost entierly from natural increase
Expound upon population composition
Demographers use age-sex pyramids to show graphically the composition of a population and to project population trends
Expound on: History and Theory of Population Growth
-Historically, world population grew slowly because high birth rates were offset by high death rates
- About 1750, a demographic transition began as world population rose sharply, mostly due to falling death rates
- In the late 1700s, Thomas Robert Malthus warned that population growth would outpace food production, resulting in social calamity
- Demographic transition theory contends that technological advances gradually slow population increase
-World population is expected to reach between 8 billion and 9 billion by 2050
Explain the First Urban Revolution
-began with the appearance of cities about 10,000 years ago
- By about 2,000 years ago, cities had emerged in most regions of the world except North America and Antarctica
- Preidustrial cities have low-rise buildings; narrow, winding streets; and personal social ties
Explain the Second Urban Revolution
-Began about 1750 as the Industrial Revolution propelled rapid urban growth in Europe
-The physical form of cities changed as planners created wide, regular streets to allow for more trade
- The emphasis on commerce, as well as the increase size of cities, made urban life more impersonal
Explain Urbanization in the United States
- came to North America with European colonists
- By 1850, hundreds of new cities have been founded from coast to coast
- By 1920, a majority of the US population lived in Urban areas
- Since 1950,teh decentralization of cities has resulted in the growth of suburbs and edge cities and a "rebound" in rural population.
- Nationally, Sunbelt cities-but not the older Snowbelt cities- are increasing in size and population
Idenitfy Ferdinand Tonnies:
-built his analysis on the concepts of
"Gemeinschaft" and Gesellshaft"

- Gemeinschaft= typical of the rural village, joins people in what amounts to a single primary group
- Gesellshaft= typical of the modern city, describes individuals motivated by their own needs rather than by desire to help improve the well-being of the community
identiy Emile Durkheim's view of Urbanization
-Agreed with much of Tonnies's thinking but claimed that urbanites do not lack social bonds; the basis of social solidarity simply differs in the two settings. He described:
1. Mechanical Solidarity= social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values. This type of social solidarity is typical of traditional, rural life.
2. Organic Solidarity= social bonds based on specialization and interdependence. This type of social solidarity is typical of modern, urban life.
Identify Georg Simmel
claimed that the overstimulation of city life produced a blase attitude in urbanites
Identify: Robert Park
at the University of Chicago, claimed that cities permit greater social freedom.
Expound upon Urbanization in Poor Nations
-The world's first urban revolution took place about 8,000 BCE with the first urban settlements.
- The second urban revolution took place after 1750 in Europe and North America with the Industrial Revolution.
- A third urban revolution is now occurring in poor countries. Today, most of the world's largest cities are found in less developed nations.
How is the state of the Environment a social issue?
Because it reflects how human beings organize social life.
- Societies increase the environmental deficit by focusing on short-term benefits and ignoring the long-term consequences brought on by their way of life.
- The more complex a society's technology, the greater its capacity to alter the natural environment
- "the logic of growth" thesis supports economic development, claiming that people can solve environmental problems as they arise
- The "limits-to-growth" thesis states that societies must curb development to prevent eventual environmental collapse
Environmental Issues include:
DISPOSING OF SOLID WASTE- 80% of what we throw away ends up in landfills, which are filling up and which can pollute groundwater under the Earth's surface
PROTECTING THE QUALITY OF WATER AND AIR- The supply of clean water is already low in some parts of the world. Industrial technology has caused a decline in air quality.
PROTECTING THE RAIN FORESTS- rain forests help remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and are home to a large share of this planet's living species. Under pressure from development, the world's rain forests are now half their original size and are shrinking by about 1% annually
ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM- Conflict theory has drawn attention to the pattern by which the poor, especially minorities, suffer most from environmental hazzards
"demography" is defined as the study of what?
Human population
Which region of the world has BOTH the lowest birth rate and the lowest infant mortality rate?
Typically, high-income nations grow mostly from ____. While low-income nations grow from ______.
Immigration; natural increase
In general, the higher the average income of a country,
the slower the population increase
In the United States, urban decentralization has caused
- the expansion of suburbs
-the development of vast urban regions
- the growth of edge cities
Which term was used by Ferdinand Tonnies to refer to social organization in which people come together on the basis of individual self-interest?
The world's third urban revolution is now taking place in
Low-income countires
When environmentalists speak of an environmental deficit, they are referring to
Long-term harm to the environment caused by a short-sighted focus on material affluence
Give an example statement that reflects the limits-to-growth thesis
People are rapidly consuming Earth's finite resources.
"Environmental Racism" refers to what?
The fact that environmental dangers are greatest for the poor and minorities