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103 Cards in this Set

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What type of drug is a chemical substance that destroys pathogenic microorganisms with minimal damage to the host?
antimicrobial drug
What concept did Paul Ehrlich develop?
Paul Ehrlich developed the concept of chemotherapy.
What did Paul Ehrlich predict chemotherapy would do?
Ehrlich predicted that chemotherapy would kill pathogens without harming the host.
Who discovered the first antibotic, penicillin?
Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibotic
Are prokaryotic cells more difficult to treat than eukaryotic?
False, Eukaryotic cells [Fungal, protozoan, and heminthic] are more difficult to treat.
Which type of drug affects only a select group of microbes?
Narrow Spectrum drug affects only a select group of microbes [gram positive cells]
Which type of drug affects a more diverse range of microbes?
Broad-spectrum drugs affect a more diverse range of microbes
What can affect gram-negative cells?
small, hydrophilic drugs can affect gram-negative drugs
Superinfection occurs in 2 ways, what are they?
Superinfection occurs when
1. A pathogen develops resistance to the drug being used
2. Normally resistant microbiota multiply excessively
What two ways does antimicrobial drugs take action?
Anitmicrobial drugs take action by:
1. directly killing microorganism [bactericidal]
2.inhibiting their growth [bacteriostatic]
True or False. Antimicrobial drugs inhibit cell wall synthesis in bacteria.
True. Some agents, such as penicillin, inhibit cell wall synthesis in bacteria.
How do some antimicrobial agents inhibit protein synthesis?
Some agents, such as chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, and streptomycin, inhibit protein synthesis by acting on 70S ribosomes.
Think about what protein's synthesize.
What type of antimicrobial agents target plasma membrane?
Antifungal agents target plasma membrane
What are some things that antimicrobial drugs can inhibit?
1. growth
2. cell wall synthesis
3. protein synthesis
4. plasma membranes
5. nucleic acid synthesis
6. enzyme activity
There are 6 things that antimicrobial drugs inhibit.
What do all penicillins contain?
B-lactam ring
B stands for Beta
What is the key to function for a Beta lactam ring?
| |
C -- N
Its a Diagram
There are three types of Antibacterial Antibiotics which inhibit cell wall synthesis. What are they?
The three types of antibacterial antibiotics are:
1. Natural Penicillin
2. Semisynthetic penicillin
3. Extended spectrum
What are natural penicillins effective against?
Natural penicillins produced by Penicillium are effective against gram-positive cocci and spirochetes
What do Penicillinases destroy?
Penicillinases [B-lactamases] are bacterial enzymes that destroy natural penicillins.
Penicilases inactivates penicillin and increases resistance to antibiotic
How are semi-synthetic penicillin made?
Semi synthetic penicillin are made in the lab by adding different side chains onto the B-lactam ring made by fungus
What are semi-synthetic penicillin resistant to?
Semi-synthetic penicillin are resistant to penicillinases
True or False. Semi-synthetic penicillin have a narrower spectrum of activity than natural penicillin.
False. Semi-synthetic penicillin have a BROADER spectrum of activity than natural penicillin.
What is an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis?
Cephalosporin is an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis
In cephalosporin, there are how many generations?
There are four generations of cephalosporin.
Which generation of Cephalosporin is narrow spectrum, gram positive?
First Generation cephalosporin is narrow spectrum and gram positive
Which generation of Cephalosporin includes psuedomonads and is injected?
Third generation cephalosporin includes psuedomonads and is injected.
Which generation of Cephalosporin is oral?
Fourth generation of cephalosporin is oral.
Which generation of Cephalosporin is extended spectrum and includes gram-negative?
Second generation is extended spectrum and includes gram-negative.
Draw the inhibition of protein synthesis and describe what is happening.
Look on PAINT.
What is the Broth dilusion test?
In a broth dilusion test, the microorganism is grown in a liquid media containing different concentrations of a chemotherapeutic agent.
What are the 7 layers of cells on the epidermis called?
epithelial cells
What does the stratum corneum contain?
The stratum corneum contains keratin
What is the hard waterproof skin called?
Can you find more bacteria under the armpits or the scalp? Why?
More bacteria can be found in the armpit. Bacteria tend to live in moisture areas.
What type of tissue does the dermis contain?
The dermis contains connective tissue.
What does the dermis contain which provides passageways for microorganisms?
The dermis contains hair follicles, sweat ducts, and oil glands which provide passageways for microorganisms.
Name 2 secretions of the skin that inhibits the growth of microorganisms.
Sebum and perspiration are secretions of the skin that inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
What does sebum and perspiration provide for some microorganisms?
Sebum and perspiration provide nutrients for some microorganisms.
Microorganisms that live on the skin are resistant to what?
Desication and high salt concentrations
What predominates on the skin?
gram positive cocci predominates on the skin
Name 5 different types of lesions.
The different types of lesions are:
1. Vesicle
2. Bullae
3. Macules
4. Papules
5. Pustules
Which lesion is flat and red?
Which lesion is raised?
Which lesion has small fluid filled?
Which lesion is a vesicle larger than 1 cm?
Which lesion is raised containing pus?
What are gram positive cocci that often grow in clusters?
What do almost all pathogenic strains of S. Aureus produce?
How do localized infections occur?
Localized infections result from S. aureus enters openings in the skin
Name 3 localized infections.
Sty, pimple and carbuncles
Which skin infection is highly contagious and caused by S. Aureus?
Impetigo is a skin infection that is highly contagious and cause by S. Aureus
How are streptococci classified?
Streptococci is classified as hemolytic enzymes and cell wall antigens
What causes inflammatory acne?
metabolic end-products [fatty acids]
What causes skin cells to proliferate and produce a benign growth called wart?
Papillomaviruses cause skin cells to proliferate and produce a benign growth
What is another name for wart?
Papilloma is another name for wart.
How are warts spread?
Warts are spread by direct contact.
What are two types of skin infection variola?
Variola major and minor
How is smallpox spread?
Smallpox is spread through respiratory route.
Who is the only host for smallpox?
Humans are the only host for smallpox.
What are complications of chickenpox?
Encephalitis and Reye syndrome are the complications of chickenpox.
Herpes simplex infection of mucosal cells result in what?
Cold sores and encephalitis are the result of herpes simplex infection.
When does herpes encephalitis occur?
When herpes simplex affects the brain herpes encephalitis occurs
What has proven to treat herpes encephalitis?
Acyclovir has proven to treat herpes encephalitis
What are some complications of measles?
middle ear infections, encephalitis, pneumonia are some complications of measles
What might an infected individual with Rubella experience?
An infected individual with Rubella will experience red rash and light fever
What does damage from the congential rubella syndrome include?
Damage from congenital rubella syndrome includes eye cataracts, deaf, still birth, mental retardation
Fungi that colonizes the outer layer of the epidermis causes what?
Dermatomycoses is what forms when fungi that colonizes the outer layer of the epidermis
What does the cardiovascular system make up?
heart, blood and blood vessels
What is part of the lymphatic system?
The lymph, lymph nodes, lymph vessels and lymphoid vessels are part of the lymphatic system.
What circulates substances to and from the tissue cells?
The heart circulates substances to and from the tissue cells.
True or False. Plasma transports dissolved substances.
What are interstial fluid that enters lymph capillaries called?
Lymph is interstial fluid that enters lymph capillaries.
What kind of vessels return lymph to blood?
Lymphatics are vessels that return lymph to blood.
What three things do lymph nodes contain?
Macrophages, B cells, and T cells are included in the lymph.
What can Gram negative sepsis lead to?
Septic shock
In septic shock what causes the symptoms?
Endotoxins are the cause of symptoms in septic shock.
Define septicemia.
Toxins in the blood.
Definition is systemic inflammatory response.
Clinical Sepsis
Inflammation of the endocardium [inner layer of the heart]
What is the inner layer of the heart called?
What is subacute bacterial endocarditis usually caused by?
Alpha-hemolytic cocci from the mouth
What is acute bacterial endocarditis usually caused by?
Staphylococcus aureus
Inflammation of heart valves
Rheumatic Fever
What type of plague: Bacterial growth in blood and lymph?
Bubonic plague
What type of plague: Septic Shock
Septicemia plague
What type of plague: Bacteria in the lungs
Pneumonic plague
What are the three phases of infection in lyme disease?
1. Bulls eye Rash
2. Irregular heartbeat, encephalitis
3. Arthritis
Soft tissue death due to ischemia [loss of blood supply]
The upper respiratory system:
nose, throat, middle ear, eustachian tubes
The lower respiratory system:
Larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, alveoli, pleura
Upper Respiratory Diseases:
Lower Respiratory Diseases:
What type of infection occurs as a complication of chicken pox, influenza, measles?
Viral Pneumonia
Hemagglutin and Neuramindase.
Which spike is used for attachment to the host in the influenza virus?
Hemagglutin spike.
Hemagglutin and Neuramindase.
Which spike is used to release virus from cell?
Neuramindase spike
inflammation of the liver
Urinary system:
kIdneys, ureters, urinary bladder, uretha
Female Urinary System: Predisposition for infection?
Short urethra
Female Reproductive System:
Ovaries, Uterian, fallopian tubes
Inflammation of the urinary bladder:
Inflammation of the urinary bladder
Inflammation of one or both kidneys
Name four ways a virus is transmitted.
blood borne
sneezing coughing