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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Value Added Model
recognizes the phenomenon that organized crime has a variety of characteristics; 9 basic characteristics and the more you have, the more likely the instance is organized crime


What are the 9 characteristics of the value-added model?

1. Non-ideological
2. Hierarchical
3. Exclusive membership
4. Perpetuist
5. Violent
6. Specialization: enforcer, fixers, money movers, brain trust
7. Monopolistic
8. Rules governed
9. Systems of redistribution`
Explain the Bureaucratic-Corporate (BC) Model.
Characteristics of bureaucracy
Characteristics of Syndicate
Rules: similar to prison gangs
Patron-Client Model
Why BC model is favored
Differences to BC Model: authority structure, decentralized communication, size, rule development, organizational "look", control
Roots of Organized Crime
1. Robber Barons
2. Urban Political Machine
3. Prohibition
Robber Barons
Compare Cressy's and Ianni's Models
Cressey: bureaucratic-corporate model, 1956 Joe Volachi @ the McClellan Commission about union racketeering, characteristics; if head falls, pyramid falls, no sideways integration
Ianni: Patron-Client; based on fieldwork; fragmented system & authority decentralized; size limit and no long chains of communication; if hub falls, patron changes hubs and if patron falls, client changes patron. can always change players & so impossible to eliminate
Characteristic's of Cressy's Model
1) pyramid hierarchy; impersonal, growth unlimited
2) long chains of communication
3) rule bound (5 rules); discretion taken away from lower levels & only top makes decisions
What are the elements of the pyramidal hierarchy?
1. Boss: capo or godfather
2. Underboss: implements boss's vision and everthing goes thru him to insulate the boss
3. Consigliare, not official part of system but acts as advisor, sometimes an old head of the family
4. Commission: All the 3 above answer to this; 24 Mafia families and 5 in NY; negotiates deals with other criminal groups and arbitrartes and resolves conflicts
5. Caporegime: responsible for groups of soldati and protected by family
6. Soldati: responsible for 1 element of the business like prostitution or gambling, etc. and are protected by family; their workers, though, are not protected
How does Ianni's patron-client model look?
Hub with several patrons servicing clients. sideways integration
Describe the roots of organized crime
1. Early entrepreneurs or robber barons: Aster and native Americans; Vanderbilt and his shipping companies; 4 elements of criminal behavior all Am. founding entrepreneurs participated in
2. Urban political machines: 1820-50; Immigrants' roles; Irish and 4 reasons how they took control
3. Prohibition: battleground of WASPs vs. Irish; Gusfield's status politics; series of dates to remember; 4 things Prohibition Created that supported organized crime
John Jacob Aster
Made a fortunein NY real estate and as a furrier; sold fur products to rich in US and abroad
Able to buy materials cheaply from Native Americans
Illegal: when they held back from selling, Aster told his men to ply with alcohol first
Illegal: extortion; Native Am. decide to stop drinking before deals and so Aster resorts to threats of violence against their villages and families
Illegal: bribery; had the governor of Michigan, Cass, on his payroll to protect him legally; anytime an agent was arrested, Cass would grant clemency
into shipping; established the Accessory Transit Co in Nicaragua, where he chartered his ships
1853: board of dir. seized control to get the profits; Vanderbilt startes competitive comp. and undercuts prices to reduce original market control
1856: board arranges for Nicaraguan revolution; paid mercenaries and installed puppet gov to cancel Vanderbilt's charter and reestablish monopoly
1856: Vanderbilt went to countries surrounding Nicaragua (Costa Rica, for ex) and paid them to invade the country and throw out the puppet gov; installed his own puppet gov
Urban Political Machines Role
1820-1850, population in US grew 4 times because of immigrants
Upon registration, immigrants immediately valuable because they could vote
Machines broker power by delivering votes
In return for votes, immigrants got protection and jobs, mostly in civil service like as police
Set up models of corruption at the municipal level
How the Irish Took Control
1. 1840 potato famine
2. 1st group coming in already speaking English and could immediately fit into political system
3. Very comfortable with patron-client model and didn't need to learn it; Irish had history of occupation and didn't trust the crown or church; patron-client model emerged; men of respect governed political-economic parts of local towns, not Brits
4.Political organization: Brought along tradition of organizing politically in clubs; couldn't go to church or city hall so met elsewhere like pubs; immediately became a threat
Status Politics and Prohibition
Irish emergence in US created this
Existing political power base called WASPs, or rural protestants, threatened by Urban Catholics or Irish
WASPs try to take away pubs, which was the Irish's way of organizing against them
1808-1st temperance
1874-1st large temperance group, WCT
1893- largest group; ASL
1911-Workman's Comp Act
1920-18th Amendment and Volstead Act
What Prohibition Created
1. Economic Vacuum; demand still present despite law
2. Need for someone to behave criminally and someone to organize to fill vacuum
3. Volstead created corruption; agents underpaid and easy to corrupt
4. Packer's Negative Contagion; Prohibition didn't sit with the avg. Am.; in a community, rules imposed that are not respected tends to breed general belief that all the rules in the social collective are not right and anomie ensues
History of Tammany Hall
1789 established as a fraternal, patriotic group called the Society of St. Tammany; community leaders help the area; evolved into Tammany Hall
Collective Property; only people were property owners could vote, but law didn't specify size of land; organization bought property in its name and listed members as owners so they could vote
1838: Tammany hall controlled NY politics
1840: Irish flood NYC and control Tammny Hall
1844: establish 1st police force in NYC: NYPD; modeled after London but highly decentralized; Irish control of alderman, elected officials in charge of the segments of NYPD, elected by Tammany Hall
Through NYPD, Tammany Hall controlled crime
Got 6% kickback from all takes and gained economic power
Lure of NYPD
Paid well
Not Monitored much
Opportunity for graft and corruption
No need for training
Irish vs. WASPs
1857-WASPs establish own police force; State Police Department of NY, or Metro
1870-Metro disbanded; Irish took over state politics and disbanded the English police
Consequences of the Metro
1) WASPs alienated the population; large concentrations of immigrant groups who did not like imposed control; reminiscent of Ireland and Sicily; WASPs didn't live in NY; citizens supported NYPD
2) created a bond between the "gang's of new york"and NYPD against the metro; mostly ragtag groups before and now empowered by NYPD and had ties to legit political power
Who controlled NY crime?
1) Tammany Hall and NYPD
2) Gang leaders
3) Variety of high-profile Slavic-Jewish leaders
Prison Gangs
*Environment originated out of
*Spread through transfers and the media
*The extent and covert
*La Nuestra Familia
*Mexican Mafia
*Aryan Brotherhood
*Black Guerilla Family
*Texas Syndicate
*Organization models
Environment Originated
*Early major gangs all appear to be independent creations; not tied to one another but looked and functioned a lot alike; similar but no connection
*Best explanation comes from Irvin Goffman, theorist and sociologist; wrote Asylums, an ethnography of mental hospitals; defined a concept total institution: a place of work and residence where like situated individuals lead a formally administered round of existence cut off from larger society
® A large number of people all sharing the same circumstance with no opportunity to leave the circumstance; told what to do and removed from everything they've ever known
Spreading of the gangs elsewhere

The media: in the 70s and 80s there were a lot of high-profile riots; a lot of interest focused on the prison subculture; every news conduit began to focus their lenses on the hidden world and drew it into the light; media allowed the gangs to replicate around the country; gangs with same names claiming to have same histories but without direct contact to each other; eventually direct contact did catch up and they did affiliate; initial spread happened electronically without contact

Residivism: likeliness to return to the prison; individual released will likely be rearrested; 70s and 80s had very high residivism rates; correction system no longer corrected and no longer functional on the outside; rate went up to over 70%; brought with them their gang cultures
Extent of the Gangs
*Current dillemma to get an accurate count of the size of gangs in institutions
*Much of gang activity is covert; officials don't know about it and so can't count it

Prestige: Wannabes claim gang affiliation but don't really have it; like the reputation of the gang affiliation; make claims to seem interesting so they can engage conversation with researchers and officials
*National Gang Survey suggests 30% of total inmate population is gang affiliated and □ Currently about 130 known prison gangs
Mexican Mafia
*Largest and most powerful
*Established in 1957 in Devel Vocational Institution
*Makes money through heroine primarily
*Sources from Durango, Mexico with the Herrera Family
*Tar heroine
*Also from Tijuana Cartels
*First time established that Mexican Mafia was controlling drug trade outside of the institution
*Affiliates released had retained their affiliation and were taking over territories
*Market controlled was much more expansive than just the prison
*First time, Mexican Mafia attacked a non-affiliate Hispanic gang
*Led to the establishment of the La Nuestra Familia
La Nuestra Familia
*Established 1967 in the Soledad Prison
*Extorts; Inmates with problems can pay for protection to help resolve the problem
*Existed prior to 1967 as a social group
*Formally recognized by prison administration
*Had a set of bylaws recorded
*Devolved into a gang after providing protection from Mexican Mafia attacks
*Affiliated with other gangs to team up against the Mexican Mafia; White gangs and black gangs
Aryan Brotherhood
*Established in 1960 in San Quentin Prison
*Originally known as the Diamond Tooth gang
*Style statement adopted; to join the gang, had to hollow out front tooth and carve out a glass shard to glue into the hollow; give sense of having a diamond in the tooth
*Primarily makes money through sale of meth
*Strong ties fiscally to a variety of outlaw motorcycle gangs; Hell's Angels
*Politically tied to the Aryan Nations group
*Neo-Nazi group; white supremacist; purity of white race and separation of races
*Radical, Christian belief called Christian Identity
*Our government is controlled by the Jews or ZOG (Zionist Occupational Government); Jewish influence on government is so profound that they're holding Christians hostage in their own country to promote Jewish interest; Below even people of color
Black Guerilla Family
*Established in 1966
*Makes its money through protection, gambling, and prostitution
*Of all the gangs, it has the most legitimate political aspirations
*First founded and headed up by George Jackson; affiliated with Huey Newton and the Black Panther party
*Tried to make the prisoner rights movement as part of the Civil Rights Movement
*General feeling that the justice system and prison system was so geared against people of color that prisoners were in effect political prisoners, victims of prejudice
*More arrests and convictions; Tried to improve rights; There was a great deal of progress for prisoner rights at the time
*Also fell victim to organized criminality
*Exploits criminal population to make money
Texas Syndicate
*Smallest of transnational
*Formed in 1970 in Folsom Prison
*Story goes, a group of Texas inmates were in Folsom Prison and were being targeted by the other inmates for abuse; band together and formed the syndicate; inmates released and went back to Texas; re arrested and imprisoned and the syndicate reformed in the Texas prisons several years later
*Makes money through extortion and violence
*Despite being very small in number, TX Syndicate poses very large problem
*Violence destabilizes the subculture of the prison
Bloods and Crips
*First identified as prison gangs in 1992 in Los Angeles County Jails
*Thought of at first as security risk groups; groups that don't get along
*Existed prior to 1992
*Were juvenile street gangs
*Crips are the larger of the gangs
*Bloods developed as reaction to Crips; At war with each other since the 50s; Off and on, truces but hostility still exists
*Elevation from security risk group to prison gang came because of their control of cocaine within the institution
*On the street, accountable for 30% of cocaine sales at retail level across the country; inside institutions, controlled as well
Origins of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gang
*Uniquely American
*WWII Origins
*Hollister, CA
*Sonny Barger
*Police Harassment
*Reduced membership desperation for money; Meth; youth counterculture
Hollister Incident
*About 750 POBOBS; Pissed off Bastards of Bloomingdale went into Holister and were deviant; Because of the number, the town didn't have the right facilities to accommodate them; Urinating in public, camping anywhere; A couple of police decided to arrest some of the POBOBs for public indecency; Brothers of the POBOBS (745 free) decided to break their brothers out and a riot broke out

*President of AMA was interviewed about how this had happened; He said that AMA was not accountable becuase the people who caused the problem were only 1% of the whole group; 1% from then on described as not part of the cultural norm; outlaws; Got national attention; national problem; Inspired Marlon Brando's The Wild One; Inspired a tradition of the motorcycle gang run; entire group gets together and rides down small towns' streets; Internalized the outlaw label
Sonny Barger
*Formally organized the Hell's Angels
*Created the idea of economy; that the gang could earn money in a variety of ways
*Also had a deviant bent; From a dysfunctional family, liked to fight, felt beyond the law; Had a criminal intent in terms of his personality; Morphed into the personality of the group as a whole
*Personae was so charismatic that the public identified the group as a whole as Barger's group and reflective of Barger

*Reinforced the idea that the gangs were outlaws in the public's mind; Led to police harrassment
Police Harassment
*Continuing police harassment of the gangs, despite whether or not they were doing something; Local populations didn't want the groups in the towns and so were harassed
*With the harassment, the fun and social aspect of the gangs began to fall away; It was no longer fun to be an outlaw motorcyclist
*Smaller size but intense loyalty to the organization
Youth Counterculture
*Young people questioning social boundaries; Sexually, spiritually, intellectually; Did so through the use of drugs; testing the boundaries of reality
*New economic market; vacuum; tend to be filled by people who can organize to support the need
*Hell's Angels were in need of money because of harassment and decreased numbers; Filled the economic void; Provided drugs to the youth counterculture; Particularly the synthetics like Meth, PCP, etc.
*The youth counterculture embraced the outlaw gang and were the logical extension; Turned back to society; Angels and outlaw gangs like them did not consider themselves a part of the counterculture; They were conservative and military; Exploited the counterculture to feed the organization
Growth of Motorcycle Gangs
*California Attorney General Report
Outlaw Motorcycle Gang Organization
*At the top is a chapter referred to as the Mother Club; Holds all the national officers; Holds the true elite of the organization; Cannot petition to join the mother club; invitation only; Performed some service to the club, something unique and identifiable and desirable
*Next are the Head Regional Chapters; The largest chapters in a region will serve the purpose; Responsible for the local chapters; North, East, South, West chapters
*Next are the Local Chapters; Each one is tied to a specific region, tied to a mother club

*Road Captain
*Limited Membership; Illegal Act, Probation, Male, Female: Old Ladies vs. Sheep
*Types of Rules
*Money Making Activities
*Enforcers; Simply the biggest and baddest guys there to enforce the rules of the club; Hell's Angels's Filthy Few; Responsible for protecting the president; Generally responsible for carrying out contract violence; Someone paying for hits or to beat someone out; Responsible for intelligence; Only members allowed to ride bikes without their colors/vests; Infiltrate other clubs and often within their own organization to be sure chapters are abiding by the laws
Road Captain
*Importance of the motorcycle run, like the 4th of July Run; Large ride through the country side; All the organizations may be meeting up at one point, someone is in charge; Social function
*Road captain deals with logistics of the events; Especially regional and national levels of runs; Thousands of people coming into one area
*Need food, gas, motorcycle parts, safe places to stay, accommodation, proper permits so they won't be turned back; Outside of the president, road captain is probably the most important part of the group
Limited Membership
*Membership tends to be white, though a few are predominantly black or interracial or hispanic; Almost exclusively male
*Women are referred to as associates; generally fall into one or two categories: Old Ladies: women who are tied to a single member of the club; Sheep: not tied to anyone in particular in the club; Most commonly, the patches worn by female associates have "Property of" above the logo of the club; Allowed to participate in social components of organization and the discretion of the men they are involved with; Have no rights
Types of Rules
1. Rules that govern interactions between club members; Not allowed to fight a brother member with weapons; can fight but can't kill each other

2. Governs interactions between clubs and outside entitites; Rule is that you provide drugs/sales what you say you will provide; don't cheat people

3. Govern club member appearance; All expected to wear your colors when on motorcycle or at club functions; Drive a particular American motorcycle

4. Participation in club events; All transnationals make it mandatory to participate in the 4th of July Run; One big event in a year

5. Sanctions for violations of rules; Riding with an exposed weapon in Hell's Angels is $100
Money Making Activities
1. Female Associates
2. Manufacture and distribution of drugs
3. Simple drug transport
4. Munitions sales
5. Muscle
6. Chop Shops
7. Legitimate enterprise
Future of Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs
1. Big 4 transnationals will continue to legitimize; New clubs will rise to take up the criminal economic vacuums left behind; Breed and Satan's Disciples for instance are moving into the vacuum

2. Increased friction between the smaller outlaw groups and other types of syndicates; Mafia having fits with outlaw groups in the North east and Hispanic in the South West; Don't respect boundaries; Economic, geographic, etc.

3. Increased sophistication of organization and growth in membership; All transnationals have accounting firms and legal teams on retainer; 1000-2000 new members each year nationally or internationally
Kennedy's Video
• JFK: 1945 own record as war hero, he had saved the lives of his crew; age 28, ready to fulfill his family's political destiny; 1947, house of rep; 6 yrs later the senate; Women and voters fell for his charm and looks; 1954, married Jackie-O; Two years later sought the nomination for VP
*1st. WV primary; heavily protestant state; reports persisted that Joe colluded with mafia to stack ballots in his son's victory; Buy votes for cash; DeMotto and his men paid rural sheriffs who counted the votes; JFK won; trade was for one mob boss to move back to US
*Another debt; foreign policy; overthrowing Cuba's Castro;believed a communist regime in our hemisphere was undesirable; Hit on Castro; 3 bosses called in for the hit, including Giancana
*Appointed Robert as Attorney General, who declared war on the Mafia; Committed himself to make the pursuit of OC his number one priority and no one was effective as him against the mob; Going after the people who had been close to his father, were trying to kill Castro for the CIA, and had gotten JFK elected; 1961, FBI recorded Rosselli and Giancana about Sinatra's attempts to re-align the JFK; Mob was feeling double-crossed; president did not bring back the exiled mob boss; widespread belief to kill the Kennedys
*JFK killed; description of Lee Harvey Oswald; caught him in a theater; 24 year old suspect worked at the Texas schoolbook depository; Picked because he immediately deflected suspicion of organized crime; 17, he was in the marines but he became increasingly disaffected; declared himself a Marxist and learned Russian; defected to Russia and married a Russian woman; 1962, became disillusioned with Soviet Union and came back; kept his Communist ideals and joined a Fair Play for Cuba party
*Telephone records connect him to mob bosses across the country; most useful contacts were with the Dallas police; in and out of station all the time and provided the officers with women, booze, etc.
Oswald is killed by Jack Ruby; 1963, Ruby a 52 year old killed Oswald in front of a live tv program; Ruby told police he acted on an impulse to spare JFK's wife to come back for the trial of Oswald
LA Mob Video
• Movies become billion dollar business
○ Gangsters become protection and enforcers
○ Johnny Rosseli becomes a behind the scenes fixer
§ Struck up with Hollywood set
§ His guy in Hollywood was Harry Cohn
□ 1932, Harry Cohn rose up $500,000 to buy Columbia; Rosseli, not Dragna became the head of Hollywood
• 1934, Rosseli went back to Chicago where he gave a seminar to take over Hollywood; explained movies paid through the tickets and there was a short amount of time to make it big for a movie
*Mob imported its muscle to make sure George Brown was elected president of the projectionist union and Buy-Off was his right hand man; Screens went dark during the first film in 500 theaters and the studios paid the mob $50,000 (and smaller one $25,000) to keep the films showing
• Benjamin Bugsy Siegle; Power of NY mob;Sent to LA in 1937 to shape up the west coast bookmaking operations
*All out assault against gambling ships anchored just outside of California's jurisdiction; The Rex owned by tony the hat; Ran gambling ships but not low-end; made for great American middle class;Water taxis brought people in; Peak times had 3000 people and could bring in $10,000 a day1939, ordered the casinos to cease operations and sent in; Tony Canaro had been tipped and gates of Rex shut it down to keep cops from going aboard; The Battle of Santa Monica Bay; Law men couldn't get aboard and Rex couldn't move; After 8 days, Canaro surrendered
*Siegel turned to Vegas, where gambling was legal; Gambled with mob money; demands sent costs for the Flamingo soaring; Juen 20, 1947, killed in his mistress's home and mob took over the Flamingo
*Battle for Siegel's bookmaking;Mickey Cohen public nuisance number one vs. Dragna's; Media loved him and loved to put him in the papers; he showed up at crime scenes that he didn't even commit to be tied to them and got power to shakedown people; Hollywood galmor with mob danger; courted publicitiy; Inflated image infuriated Dragna, as did his hold in the bookmaking ; Gambling czar of the West Coast
*Battle of Sunset Strip; Battle for gambling; 1947-50; Dragna family tried at least 5 times to get Cohen; two bombs in the house: one was accidentally under a safe, one the fuse blew out too soon; 1952, cohen sent to prison for tax evasion; Dragna had the opportunity to take over but failed
*William Parker; used Proactive policing; Legal and extra-legal methods; harassed the mbosters and did it in front of people to cause embarassment; Worked to keep outsiders from coming into the city; Airport Squad anticipated the arrival of mobsters and roughed them up, cuffed them, and saw that they were booked on the next flight out of town; Violated a lot of Civil Rights but managed to keep the mob weak
*Frattiano; One of west coast's most vicious killers; in Dragna's gangs; Many victims were shot in the back of the head; Admitted to committing 5 murders and participated in many more; never claimed an innocent person; only killed gangsters; Biggest mobster to be put in witness protection program; Charges included extortion, racketeering, and intention to commit murder; 1980, took the stand, first mobster to take the stand and verified the La Cosa Nostra; laid out the brutal reality of the mob; At the end of his testimony, he felt like they would convict the others; 11 out of 22 counts upheld and 2-5 year sentences; Family was broken with entire hierarchy going to jail
Hell's Angels Video
• 1945; GI's return home to plenty of work and low-cost homes; coming home to peace-time America is a let down; Displaced after the war; Motorcycles were cheap; army surplus
*1956 Barger wants to join the club; Started Hell's Angels in Oakland; Thought that there should be a tighter affiliation with Hell's Angels club with a central organization; Turns the loose confederation into a brotherhood
*Angel's converge on a road rally called the Gypsy Tour; Racing out of town and at the top of the big hill and went into air and the two died; AMA cancelled tour and improved outlaw image of Angels;
*Establishes signature look; tattoos, vests, etc.
*1960s Portrayed as the model of renegade American culture; McWilliams editor of Nation Magaizone asks Hunter S. Thompson to write an article on gang; Afterwards wants to ride with Barger and his gang and hangs out in clubs to get an audience with Barger; Growing number of youth refused to tolerate war; Oakland Hells Angels keeps a watchful eye on the rioting youth; Sense of patriotism comes to bear in 1965 at a protest; Many angels were Vietnam and Korean War; Burst through the police lines and attacked the leaders of the protestors; Thompson is finishing up his book and all he needs is an ending; Another angel slapped his wife and then kicked his dog and Thompson said only punks did that; they then got into a fight and Thompson got beaten up
*Late 1960s; Fixtures in the pop scenes, rock starts court them as friends, and movies consult them; Rolling Stones come to the area to give a free concert; Angels are hired by Mick Jagger to be the security
*1970; Continue to ride in public; Incorporate and emblem receives a US patent
*Police believe Angels are developing an underground crime organization; Did contracts for the mob and learned from the Italians on the east coast; Decided to do it themselves rather than work with mob; Angels make money in major narcotics transactions, money laundering, oversease banking; Accusations about organized prostitution, narcotics, and murder for hire but few convictions
*1980s Cops stay focused on Sonny Barger, believing he is the leader, which he claims he is not; He says he is one member, not international, no formal leadership but all democratic
*End of 1980s; Charters to clubs in 15 countries; Police believe that they are an international crime ring specifically making money through drugs like meth
*1998, celebrates 50th anniversary