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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

How definition of intellectual disability changed over the past several decades

from 'subaverage general intellectual functioning' to using IQ to 'intellectual disability'

Identify 3 key elements of 1992 AAIDD definition of intellectual disability and explain how they are conceptually interrelated

Individual, environment, type of support needed - interrelated b/c it reflects 'fit' btw person's capabilities and structure and expectations of environment

Why assessment of intelligence is such a controversial issue

Intelligence and understanding of it is extremely complex, mysterious, and complicated

Adaptive behavior and how it's assessed

Ability of individual to meet standards of personal independence as well as social responsibility appropriate for their chronological age and cultural group - direct observation/structured interviews/standardized scales

4 different strategies for classifying individuals w/ intellectual disabilities

Etiological perspective, intellectual deficits, educational perspective, levels of support

How society's view and understanding of persons who're intellectually disabled changed over centuries

from eugenics and infanticide to development of large, geographically isolated institutions for individuals w/ intellectual disability

Factors that have contributed to gradual reduction in number of individuals classified as intellectually disabled

benefits of prevention and early intervention, changing definitions, and improved referral tactics

7 possible causes of intellectual disability and example of each

chromosomal abnormalities - down syndrome, metabolic and nutritional disorders - phenylketonuria, maternal infections - rubella, environmental conditions - fetal alcohol syndrome, unknown influences - anencephaly, gestational disorders - low birth weight, neonatal complications - hypoxia

How learned helplessness, outer-directedness, and generalizing affect learning in students w/ intellectual disability

learned helplessness - causes students to stop trying, outer-directedness - lack of motivation and increased dependence, generalizing - learning's situation-specific

functional academics and how it's related to community-based instruction

application of life skills as means of teaching academic tasks - community-based instruction is way of teaching functional academics

Cooperative learning and why it's popular educational technique

instructional learning whereby heterogeneous groups of students work together on assignment - emphasizes working toward common goal

Necessary steps for effectively using scaffolding w/ students w/ intellectual disability

begins w/ what student already knows, new info's presented in logical sequence, apply and practice

How family-centered early intervention influenced programming activities for young children w/ intellectual disability

now focuses on empowering family

Distinguish btw sheltered workshop for adults w/ intellectual disability and contemporary practice of supported competitive employment

Sheltered workshop - structured work environment for persons w/ disabilities in which vocational and social skills are often focus of attention. at worksite for typical workers, individuals w/ disabilities're employed and work alongside their typical peers but recieve ongoing assistance from job coach

how assistive tech benefits individuals w/ intellectual disability

augmentative and alternative communication (aac) - symbols, aids, strategies, and techniques used as supplement/alternative to oral language

2 main categories of communication disorder

speech and language

how idea defines speech and language impairments

"communication disorder, such as stuttering/impaired articulation/language impairment/voice impairment, that adversely affects child's educational performance"

3 broad categories of speech disorders and example of each

articulation disorders - omissions, fluency disorders - stuttering, voice disorders - phonation

Language and how it's different from speech

code used to communicate ideas via conventional system of arbitrary signals; speech is expression of language

Several factors that cause/contribute to voice disorders

larynx disorders, phonation disorders, abnormal production and/or absences of vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, and/or duration, which is inappropriate for individual's age and/or sex"