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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 mechanisms of natural selection
1). Genetic Drift
2). Gene Flow
3). Natural Selection
4). Mutation
5). Nonrandom mating
Define: Adaption
tendency of an organism to suit it's environment
Homologous Structure
body parts in different organisms that have similar arrangements of muscles blood vessels, nerves and undergo similar embryological development, but do not necessarily serve same function.
Vestigial Structure
nonfunctional remains of organs that were functional in ancestral species and may still be functional in related species, e.g., the claws of a dog.
The formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution.
Reproductive isolating mechanisms can result in the...
...development of new species.
Habitat Isolation
Habitat isolation refers to situations where two species may live in the same general area but live or reproduce in different habitats. This difference in living space keeps the two species separated
Temporal isolation
genetic isolation achieved due to temporal differences in breeding. For example, one population would be temporally isolated from another if it's breeding season was in the fall while the other's was in the spring.
Behavioral Isolation
An isolating mechanism in which two allopatric species do not mate because of differences in courtship behavior.
Adaptive Radiation
The development of a variety of species from a single ancestral form; occurs when a new habitat becomes available to a population.
Relative Dating of Fossils
Relative dating puts the fossil in context---what lived before it, and what lived after.
Absolute Dating
Absolute dating is the process of determining a specific date for an archaeological or paleontological site or artifact.
A systematic method of classifying plants and animals. Classification of organisms based on degrees of similarity purportedly representing evolutionary relatedness.
Binomial Nomenclature
A system of taxonomy developed by Linnaeus in the early eighteenth century. Each species of plant and animal receives a two-term name; the first term is the genus, and the second is the species.
Rules for naming Genus and Species
Each name must be made up of two words: one is the modern Latin or scientific term for the genus and the second is the identifying word for the particular species. In the species Homo sapiens, Homo is the genus and sapiens is the specific species within that genus.
phylogenetic tree
A diagram showing evolutionary lineages of organisms.
analogous structures
Body parts that serve the same function in different organisms, but differ in structure and embryological development; e. g., the wings of insects and birds.
Three Major Domains:
1. Bacteria – most known prokaryotes
2. Archaea – Prokaryotes of Extreme Environments
3. Eukarya – Eukaryotic Cells
Infectious chemical agent composed of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) inside a protein coat.
Organelles found in bacteria:
ribosome’s, cell membrane or cell wall, and mitochondria
Do bacteria contain cell walls or cell membranes?
Binary Fission:
The method by which bacteria reproduce. The circular DNA molecule is replicated; then the cell splits into two identical cells, each containing an exact copy of the original cell's DNA.
Bacterial conjugation is sexual reproduction, when the two cells interchange nuclei and separate then divide several times.
In Griffith's experiments with strains of pneumonia bacterium, the process by which hereditary information passed from dead cells of one strain into cells of another strain, causing them to take on the characteristic virulence of the first strain.
The inner layer of the membrane or wall of some spores and pollen grains.
*Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissue:
Simple squamous epithelial cells are thin and flat (the thinnest of all epithelial cell-types), which allows them to have a large surface area. Simple squamous epithelial cells function as mediators of filtration and diffusion. Due to their simple and thin construct, they allow for easy transmembrane movement (i.e. across the membrane, and through the cell) of small molecules.
*Simple Columnar Epithelial Tissue:
Simple columnar epithelial cells are longer than they are wide. Characteristically, their nucleui are found at the base of the cell. The cells are connected by tight junctions. The cells receive nutrients through the basement membrane, which separates the cells from the capillary basal layer. The main function of simple columnar epithelial cells are protection.
*Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue:
A fibrous connective tissue with an abundance of enlarged collagenous fibers which tend to crowd out the cells and ground substance. Found in the tendons and ligaments. The function of this tissue is to anchor skeletal muscle to bone, to attach bone to bone as well as to stabilize the bones within a joint.
*Stratified Squamous Epithelial Tissue:
flat, scale-like and can be multi-layered. It is selectively permeable (filtration/diffusion). It provides protection against mechanical friction (rubbing and physical trauma from external sources) and chemical damage (environmental and internal chemicals/compounds degrading epithelial lining). It contains alveoli, the cell layer essential for gas exchange, also a protective layer against air-born pathogens/toxic gases. It can be found in the lining of the esophagus. It provides protection of the esophagus from stomach acid.
*Adipose Tissue:
The cells of adipose (fat) tissue are characterized by a large internal fat droplets. In addition to serving as a storage site for fats (lipids), also pads and protects certain organs and regions of the body. As well, it forms an insulating layer under the skin which helps regulate body temperature.
*Loose Fibrous Connective Tissue:
Loose connective tissue surrounds nerves, blood vessels, and also keeps organs and epithelia in place. 3 functions: 1. Bring cushion to the organs and storage energy (adipose), 2. Combined strength, elasticity, and support, 3. Give frame to the organs.
Red Blood Cells:
Component of the blood that transports oxygen with the hemoglobin molecule.
White Blood Cells:
Component of the blood that functions in the immune system and helps heal wounds and fight infection.
carry chemicals needed for blood clotting (contain clotting factors).
The liquid portion of the blood.
The ability to maintain a relatively constant internal environment.
Negative Feedback:
The stopping of the synthesis of an enzyme by the accumulation of the products of the enzyme-mediated reaction. (Negative feedback mechanisms consist of reducing the output or activity of any organ or system back to its normal range of functioning.)
Positive Feedback:
Biochemical control where the accumulation of the product stimulates production of an enzyme responsible for that product's production. (Positive feedback mechanisms are designed to accelerate or enhance the output created by a stimulus that has already been activated.)
How many chambers does the heart have?
The _____ prevents the mixture of oxygen poor and oxygen rich blood
19). Sinoatrial Node:
muscle cells in the right atrium that sends timed impulses to the heart's other muscle cells, causing them to contract; the heart's pacemaker.
Atrioventricular node:
The valve between each ventricle of the heart.
20). How do red blood cells carry oxygen?
They can carry oxygen due to hemoglobin. Hemoglobin contains iron, which attracts Oxygen molecules. So oxygen attaches to hemoglobin from the lungs, where there is a relative abundance of oxygen, and is carried to the tissues.
How blood clots:
The platelets are tiny cellular elements, made in the bone marrow, that travel in the bloodstream waiting for a bleeding problem to develop. When bleeding occurs, chemical reactions change the surface of the platelet to make it “sticky.” Sticky platelets are said to have become “activated.” These activated platelets begin adhering to the wall of the blood vessel at the site of bleeding. Fibrin strands stick to the exposed vessel wall, clumping together and forming a web-like complex of strands. Red blood cells become caught up in the web.
22). Functions of the Lymphatic System:
The lymphatic system helps to maintain fluid balance, defend the body against disease and absorb liquids from the intestine and transport them to the blood.
Nonspecific defense mechanisms:
1. Barrier to Entry: Obstacles that serve as an initial defense and prevention towards infection trying to enter the body. Ex: Skin
2. Inflammatory Response: A reaction to the invasion of microorganisms through the skin or through the epithelial layers of the respiratory, digestive, or urinary system; characterized by four signs: redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
3. Phagocytes: White blood cells that can engulf (by phagocytosis) and destroy microorganisms including viruses and bacteria.
4. Natural Killer Cells and Protective Proteins: A lymphocyte able to bind to certain tumor cells and virus-infected cells without the stimulation of antigens, and kill them.
24). Antigen:
Molecules carried or produced by microorganisms that initiate antibody production.
A bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.
Proteins produced by immune system cells that bind to foreign molecules and microorganisms and inactivate them.
25). B-cells:
Type of lymphocyte responsible for antibody-mediated immunity; mature in the bone marrow and circulate in the circulatory and lymph systems where they transform into antibody-producing plasma cells when exposed to antigens.
The type of lymphocyte responsible for cell-mediated immunity; also protects against infection by parasites, fungi, and protozoans and can kill cancerous cells; circulate in the blood and become associated with lymph nodes and the spleen.
26). Why can opportunistic infections prove fatal to someone with AIDS?
Someone with AIDS has a low white blood cell count meaning their immune system is extremely weak. Opportunistic infections take advantage of weak immune systems which can prove fatal in a person with AIDS whose immune system is weaker than that of someone who simply has a cold.
27). Active Immunity:
Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response. Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains the antigen. A vaccine stimulates a primary response against the antigen without causing symptoms of the disease.
Passive Immunity:
Artificially acquired passive immunity is a short-term immunization by the injection of antibodies, such as gamma globulin, that are not produced by the recipient's cells. Naturally acquired passive immunity occurs during pregnancy, in which certain antibodies are passed from the maternal into the fetal bloodstream.
The path of food:
Mouth, Esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
29). Functions of the Liver:
detoxifies blood and stores glucose as glycogen
What do the Kidneys do? Where does it take place?
The kidneys filter blood and regulate body fluids. They also produce urine. This takes place in functional units called nephrons
3 Types of Neurons-
1. Motor Neurons: neurons that relay signals from the central nervous system to the other parts of the body
2. Sensory Neurons: neurons that transmit information to the central nervous system from the senses of sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell, as well as those that transmit pain signals
3. Inter Neurons: relay signals between neurons or groups of neurons, are responsible for the processing of information by the brain, like the logic circuits of a computer. also serve to relay signals from place to place within the central nervous system.
33). Dendrites:
Short, highly branched fibers that carry signals toward the cell body of a neuron.
Cell Body:
In a neuron, the part that contains the nucleus and most of the cytoplasm and the organelles.
*Myelin Sheath:
Layers of specialized glial cells, called Schwann cells, that coat the axons of many neurons.
Nodes of Ranvier:
A gap between two of the Schwann cells that make up an axon's myelin sheath; serves as a point for generating a nerve impulse.
34). Central Nervous System:
The division of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System:
he division of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to other parts of the body. Components of the nervous system that transmit messages to the central nervous system.
Autonomic Nervous System:
The portion of the peripheral nervous system that stimulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands; consists of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems.
Somatic Nervous System:
The portion of the peripheral nervous system consisting of the motor neuron pathways that innervate skeletal muscles.
35). Axon Membrane (during resting potential):
the electrical potential of a neuron or other excitable cell relative to its surroundings when not stimulated or involved in passage of an impulse (gives the neuron a break).
36). Axon Membrane (during action potential):
The change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell. (Sodium ions move inside the membrane).
38). Cerebrum:
The part of the forebrain that includes the cerebral cortex; the largest part of the human brain.
That part of the brain concerned with fine motor coordination and body movement, posture, and balance; is part of the hindbrain and is attached to the rear portion of the brain stem.
A region in the brain beneath the thalamus; consists of many aggregations of nerve cells and controls a variety of autonomic functions aimed at maintaining homeostasis.
Medulla Oblongata:
The continuation of the spinal cord within the skull, containing control centers for the heart and lungs.
The elongated ridges on the floor of each lateral ventricle of the brain, thought to be the center of emotion, memory, and the autonomic nervous system.
A roughly almond-shaped mass of gray matter deep inside each cerebral hemisphere, associated with the sense of smell.
39). Reflex Arc:
Pathway of neurons, effector(s) and sensory receptors that participate in a reflex.
40). Lag Phase:
Stage of bacterial growth in which metabolic activity occurs but no growth.
Exponential Growth:
Growth whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number or size
Stable Equilibrium:
A state in which a body tends to return to its original position after being disturbed
Carrying Capacity:
The number of people that can be supported by a given ecosystem, given their consumption of natural resources and use of technology.
41). Two life history strategies-
1. Opportunistic:
2. Equilibrium:
describe opportunistic and equilibrium
1. Opportunistic: The production of millions of eggs and sperm since only a small percent will join become offspring. Ex: Insects
2. Equilibrium: The reproduction of much fewer offspring. Species take care of offspring.
Species Interactions & Expected outcomes:
1. neutralism -
2. mutualism -
3. competition -
4. predation
5. inhibition -
6. commensalism -
describe each species interaction:
1. neutralism -
2. mutualism -
3. competition -
4. predation
5. inhibition -
6. commensalism -
1. neutralism - Neutralism is where two species have no interaction at all.
2. mutualism - Mutualism is a type of symbiotic relationship where two species of organisms live together and benefit from the interaction.
3. competition - Competition within an ecosystem occurs when more than one species is seeking the same limited resource. Competition may have also caused specialization.
4. predation - Predation occurs when one organism feeds on another. Predation may actually maintain species diversity.
5. inhibition - Inhibition is a mechanism, either physiological or mechanical, which organisms have developed to better protect themselves.
6. commensalism - Commensalism is a relationship where one species derives a benefit from the other species and the other species is not harmed by the relationship nor does it benefit from it.
Describe predator/prey relationships
43). In predator/prey relationships, when the number of prey increase, the number of predators increase. When the number of predators increase, the number of prey decrease.