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37 Cards in this Set

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what is the definition of biology?

the study of life

what are the 8 characteristics of life?

1) highly organized DNA

2) growth and development

3) response to enviromental

4) reproduces

5) evolves

6) uses energy

7) homeostasis

8) made of cells

what are to 7 levels of classification?

1) kingdom

2) phylum

3) class

4) order

5) family

6) genus

7) species

what is the monomer of carbohydrates?


what is the monomer of lipids?

fatty acids

what is the monomer of proteins?

amino acids

what is the monomer of nucleic acids?


what elements are found in carbohydrates? in what ratio?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen; 1:2:1


hydro - water

lysis - to cut

separating molecules by readding water

dehydration synthesis

dehydration - to take away water

synthesis - to create

taking water away to link molecules together


same chemical formula but different structure


simple sugars


two monosaccharides joined together


many sugars; more than 3 monosaccharides joined together


tri - 3 fatty acids

glyceride - glycerol

3 fatty acids and glycerol


compose the cell membrane; contain glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and a phosphate group

what regions on a phospholipid are hydrophilic? hydrophobic?

head - hydrophilic

tail - hydrophobic

what is this?

carboxyl group

on a lipid

where is the omega end found?

fatty acids

what kind of fat is this?

saturated fat

what kind of fat is this?

unsaturated fat

what kind of fat is this?

trans unsaturated fat

what kind of fat is this?

cis unsaturated fat

how do you recognize an omega 3 fatty acid?

a hydrogen is missing 3 from the omega end

amino acid

monomer of proteins

peptide bond

a bond formed between two adjacent amino acids


multiple amino acids linked together

structure of amino acids

contains amino group, carboxlic acid, and a radical (R) group; each is identical except for the R group

parts of a nucleotide

sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphate group

what sugar is found in DNA? RNA?

deoxyribosnucleic acid; ribonucleic acid

what bases are found in DNA? RNA?

DNA - adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine

RNA - adenine, uracil, cytosine, guanine

enzymes are...?



a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed 8

what is the function of a phospholipid in a cell membrane?

what goes in and comes out must pass through it somehow

what is the function of proteins in a cell membrane?

form many structures in your body; controls what comes in and out

what is the function of carbohydrates in the cell membrane?

"markers" to allow your body to recognize your cells from someone else's

why are phospholipid tails located on the inside of the membrane?

they're hydrophobic and don't like water