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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Living organisms are not made of many cells



Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

The lower the number the more acidic and the more H+

What is the primary reason bacterial cells die in the presence of the correct antibiotic?

they cannot make new proteins


a cell secretes a chemical messenger (a autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell


Programmed cell death

Protein Kinase (PK)

a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them

Active Transport

the movement of molecules across a cell membrane in the direction against some gradient or other obstructing factor


converts chemical energy (sugar) into another form of chemical energy (ATP), which is simpler and could be used by the cell


converts solar/light energy into chemical energy (sugar)


a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule that a protein binds


a protein molecule, that receives chemical signals from outside the cell

Cellular Response

how your body recognizes and defends itself


protein catalyst (speed up reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy)

What is the monomer of carbs and example

Macronomics; sugar

What is the monomer of lipids and example

fatty acids; animal fat

What is the monomer of proteins and example

amino acids; starch

What is the monomer of nuclecic acid and example

nucleotides; (A=T, G=C)

What are the three different types of proteins?

Structural: they build the body as cheratin in nails

Functional: they work doing something for the body as Haemoglobin in blood

Chemically active: they transform matter into something different, a chemical reaction takes place as in lipasas they destroy fats in food

What is the structure of the plasma membrane?

the main component of the membrane is the phospholipid bylayer - double layer of phospholipids with hydrophobic tails back to back and hydrophilic heads facing out. it also includes proteins suspended in this bylaeyr, that are all moving around and are responsible for trasporting stuff in and out of the cell. Some particles can just go through this membrane, with the help of those proteins. larger molecules, that can't fit through the pores, go in and out with the help of special vesicles - for the molecule to go in the cell, the membrane kind of goes around the particle, includes it in the structure and then pinches of inside the cell.


A nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all modern living organisms. DNA's genes are expressed, or manifested, through the proteins that its nucleotides produce with the help of RNA


The information found in DNA determines which traits are to be created, activated, or deactivated, while the various forms of RNA do the work


water molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration


molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration

Ionic Bonds

the complete transfer of valence electron(s) between atoms and is a type of chemical bond that generates two oppositely charged ions

Covalent Bonds

a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms

What is the basic process of how cells form tissues?

Cell divison occurs and send singals to other cells to change to make a coating to stop any other substances from entering the wound

What are the three types of animalcell junctions?

Tight Junctions: a specialized connection of two adjacent animal cell membranes such that the space usually lying between them is absent

Adherens Junctions: protein complexes that occur at cell–cell junctions in epithelial and endothelial tissues

Gap Junctions: specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell-types

Hypotonic Solution

Only water goes in causing it to become swollen

Only water goes in causing it to become swollen

Hypertonic Solution

the water gets sucked out of the cell because of the high amount of salt causing it to shrivel up

the water gets sucked out of the cell because of the high amount of salt causing it to shrivel up

Isotonic Solution

the movement of water out of the cell is exactly balanced by movement of water into the cell

the movement of water out of the cell is exactly balanced by movement of water into the cell


reactions that release energy

ATP functions by providing the energy to drive endergonic reactions


Know the diagram


Gains an electron


all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism


The chemical reactions that synthesize molecules in metabolism


Biochemical reactions that break down molecules in metabolism

What is produced during the citric acid cycle?


NADPH is produced by?

light reactions alone

Calvin cycle location

chloroplast stroma

Cell respiration

the biochemical pathway by which cells release energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules and provide that energy

Equation photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2

Equation aerobic cell respiration

C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ → 6CO₂ + 6H₂O + energy

Location of cell respiration

glycolysis : takes place in the cytoplasm

Kreb's Cycle/ citric-acid cycle : takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria

Electron Transport Chain: takes place in critae


process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy

What are the harvest photons from wavelength of light energy

chorophyll a and b and carotenoids

ATP and NADH made in the critic acid cycle

2 ATP and 6 NADH

Glucose is broken down into


The loss in free energy of the electron donates by NAPH used to transport H+ across inner mitochondrial membrane against electrochemical gradient is the electron transport


Anerobic respiration

the process of producing cellular energy without oxygen

aerboic respiration

the process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen

C3 photosynthesis

most common and the most efficient at photosynthesis in cool, wet climates

C4 photosynthesis

most efficient at photosynthesis in hot, sunny climates

CAM photosynthesis

adapted to avoid water loss during photosynthesis so they are best in deserts


process that converts sugar to acids, gases or alcohol