Cellular Respiration Level 3 Analysis
Level 3 analysis All cells in the body have a need for a source of energy to function. Cellular respiration is a specific set of metabolic relations that occur in cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy as ATP and release products. The reactions of cellular respiration are glycolysis, pyruvate metabolism, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain (ETC). The pathways are either aerobic meaning they need oxygen to occur or anaerobic meaning they don’t need oxygen to occur.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is used as an energy source for many living organisms. The cell needs to harvest energy from glucose to get the usable energy of ATP. The process of glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of the …show more content…
This process occurs in the mitochondria of the cell. At the end of glycolysis, two pyruvates with extractable energy are left. The oxidation of pyruvate is used to catch remaining energy from ATP although no ATP is specifically produced in this step. There are three substances that pyruvate can be converted to, lactate which is anaerobic, acetyl CoA which is aerobic, and ethyl alcohol which is anaerobic. Oxygen is needed for the conversion from the pyruvate to the acetyl CoA and CO2. This reaction uses coenzyme A as a carrier and a NAD+ as an oxidizing agent. The pyruvate is converted to one carbon dioxide and two acetyl CoA groups that are carried by coenzyme A. Electrons are transferred to NAD+ and then reduced to NADH + H+ during the oxidation phase of pyruvate. The purpose of lactic acid formation is to ensure that NAD+ is available so glycolysis can continue. To form lactate pyruvate must be reduced. The substrate NADH + H+ is then oxidized and NAD+ is the product. Form here lactate is formed. To form ethyl Alcohol, pyruvate needs to give off CO2, from this acetaldehyde is formed. Like in lactate, the substrate NADH + H+ is put in to produce NAD+ This reduction is what produces ethyl …show more content…
This pathway is where most of the total ATP is produced. The electron transport chain operates in a step process. The first step is need for the second step to occur and so on. Early in the chain, the NADH and the FADH2 are reoxidized to NAD+ and FAD. When the NADH is later reoxidized, 18 ATP’s are produced, and with the FADH2 to FAD, 2 ATP are produced. This process is a series of coupled oxidation/reduction reactions where a proton is being handed off to an electron. The electrons are being passed from NADH to oxygen to yield H2O. What occurs with the released energy is, H+ is transferred from the inside of the mitochondria to the inter-membrane. The goal is to have the H+ come back into the mitochondria through ATP synthesis. When this occurs, the energy produced by H+ drives the production of ATP to ADP. This pathway produces, 2/3 of the total 36 ATP that are produced per