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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ingestive heterotrophs
require energy/nutrients from other things
systems required by ingestive heterotrophs to capture food
sensory organs
neural coordination
skeletal support
neural/muscular response systems
digestive system
mouth & internal digestive system used to absorb nutrients from food
circulatory system
transport nutrients from food to body cells
excretory system
removes wastes from the body
hormonal system
coordinates growth, response, reproduction, and digestive secretions
-intermediate stage in evolution of animals; lack most systems
-differ from protists in having specialized cell types cooperating in a multicellular body
(sea anemones,corals,jellyfish)

simple animals with 2 fundamental tissue layers, gastrodermal cavity (single opening), radial symmetry, simple network of nerves and contractile fibers

many have stinging cells that can be injected into animals
gastrodermal cavity
one opening
polyps & medusas
polyps- sessile cnidarians

medusas- mobile cnidarians
characteristics of most animals
3 tissue layers : ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

bilaterally symmetrical

show cephalization

develop body cavity (coelom) lined with mesoderm
hydrostatic skeleton
how most soft-bodied animals like earthworms move
cambrian period
animals began to develop hard skeletons or shells for protection and support of muscular activity
(crustaceans,arachnids,and insects)

jointed exoskeletons that molt as the animal grows

insects & arachnids evolved to the terrestrial environment
spiracles and trachea
respiratory system of insects
book lungs
respiratory system of spiders
wings (insects)
provide mobility and an advantage in seeking food

dispersal and mating

silk glands

related to food acquisition

also used for dispersal and defense
crustaceans and insects

may be highly modified in insects adapted for special modes of feeding (moths/butterflies)
spiders and other chelicerates like scorpions

used for feeding
(clams, chitons, snails, octopi, squid)

shells made of calcium carbonate. grow as animals do from secretions from the mantle

have a single foot

cephalapods! foot divided into tentacles

have great mobility,large eyes,intelligence from evolving as predators
(sea stars, sea urchins, sea sligs)

deuterostomes share a common ancestry with chordates separate from arthropods, mollusks, and annelid worms

nearly radially symmetrical, complex dermal system (gills, spines, pedicellarae, water vascular system, tube feet)

early echinoderms like crinoids were sessile filter feeders

echinoderm spikes on skin
(lancelets, vertebrates)

notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, postanal tail, basket-like pharynx
specialized sessile chordates with enlarged pharyngeal baskets

only the motile larvae have the notochord and postanal tail
chordates with a spinal column and internal skeleton of distinct bones

no notochord
aquatic vertebrates
two pairs of fins, jaws, placoid scales and teeth, lateral line organs, lungs->swim bladders
terrestrial vertebrates

evolved legs, improved lungs, and eventually amniotic eggs
amniotic egg
amnion surrounding the embryo

yolk=main source of nutrients

allantois-disposal sac

adapted for land
evolved from warm-blooded dinosaurs

feathers before wings

lightweight skeleton and modified lungs which facilitated flying
descended from early amniotes

evolved mammary glands, body hair, versatile teeth, a muscular diaphragm, and internal gestation
evolved primarily in an arboreal habitat, accounting for the flexibility of their limbs, binocular color vision, and high intelligence
evolved from primates that moved into grasslands

greater intelligence and social interaction required for survival in grasslands

hands freed up by the evolution of bipedal locomotion, leading to the use of tools and the development of technology
developed upright posture, an s-shaped spine, and bipedal locomotion
homo erectus
extremely successful species with many characteristics associated with modern humans
homo neanderthalensis
more like us than previously thought; may have been a subspecies of race of our own species