Students' Learning StylesLearning is a complex process of acquiring knowledge or skills involving a learner's biological characteristics/senses (physiological dimension); personality characteristics such as attention, emotion, motivation, and curiosity (affective dimension); information processing styles such as logical analysis or gut feelings (cognitive dimension); and psychological/individual differences (psychological dimension) (Dunn, Beaudry, & Klavas, 1989). Due to the multiples dimensions of differences in each learner, there have been continuing research interests in learning styles. Some 21 models of learning styles are cited in the literature (Curry, 1983) including the Kolb learning preference model (Kolb, 1984), Gardner's
…show more content…
Web-based e-learning systems placed more responsibilities on learners than traditional face-to-face learning systems. A different learning strategy, self-regulated learning, is necessary for e-learning systems to be effective. Self-regulated learning requires changing roles of students from passive learners to active learners. Learners must self-manage the learning process. The core of self-regulated learning is self-motivation (Smith, 2001). Self-motivation is defined as the self-generated energy that gives behavior direction toward a particular goal (Zimmerman, 1985, 1994).
The strength of the learner's self-motivation is influenced by self-regulatory attributes and self-regulatory processes. The self-regulatory attributes are the learner's personal learning characteristics including self-efficacy, which is situation-specific self-confidence in one's abilities (Bandura, 1977). Because self-efficacy influences choice, efforts, and volition (Schunk, 1991), a survey question (Moti1 inAppendix A) representing self-efficacy is used to measure the strength of self-motivation. The self-regulatory processes refer to the learner's personal learning processes such as attributions, goals, and monitoring. Attributions are views in regard to the causes of an outcome (Heider, 1958). A survey question (Moti2 in Appendix A) representing a controllable attribution is used