The Role of the Environment in Personality Development of Children

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Abstract
Various components influence the overall development of children. It is not simply the society in which each child is born and lives but certain and identifiable parts of the society. Although every aspect of child development involves genetics, environmental factors contribute significantly in the personality development of children. Subcultures of race/ethnicity, economic status, faiths/religion, and locality/region, in addition to particular groups such as friends and family distinctly affect each child. Throughout the lifespan, people constantly confront new or varying situations—both individual and societal—and need to understand how to adjust to these conditions. The most significant time of acculturation occurs during
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Environment is a determinant that shapes one’s personality and consists of one’s culture, the standards in one’s family, friends, associates, and other influential experiences (Hawkins, 2012). Additionally, environmental factors such as child abuse, volatile home life, authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and poverty appear to escalate the possibility of developing behavioral disorders in children.
Parenting Styles and Attachment
The knowledge and understanding of the effects of parenting styles and its influence on how a child develops is crucial. The correlation of parenting practices with the personality development of children is a long sought after issue of theoretical, empirical and clinical interest. Feldman (2011) references theories of Erikson, Bowlby and Ainsworth and concedes that the effects of child-rearing—such as attachment style, identity and self-esteem—is central in personality development of children and parental care cultivates a sense of security. Child-rearing practices—such as relations between mother and infant for the fulfillment of biological necessities—are particularly significant in personality development. Patterns of attachment—secure, avoidant, ambivalent and disorganized-disoriented—during infancy and periods of early childhood impacts the child’s identity as well as future love relationships.
Baumrind, Maccoby and Martin (as cited in Feldman, 2011) identified four main parenting styles as: authoritative,

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