# Summary: The Importance Of Direct Instruction

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Explicit instruction is used when a teacher has designed a lesson plan for a topic, that the students will learn in a step-by-step process (Van de Walle et al., 2013, p. 98). The study, “The Effect of Direct Instruction Strategy on Math Acievement of Primary 4th and 5th Grade Student with Learning Difficulties,” sampled sixty 4th and 5th grade students recognized to have learning problems associated with math and taught using direct instruction or in a traditional format. The study found that by using direct instruction there were significant differences for the achievement of struggling students, or in other words their scores improved (Al-Makanleh, 2011). An example of using direct or explicit instruction would be leading a struggling student or group of struggling students in a lesson describing addition. For instance, the teacher may begin with the definition of addition, then using counters describes an addition problem showing the group how to find the answer using the counters. The teacher will explain the concept of the addition problem, then walking the students through each step until they find the answer. Next, the teacher may work through a few more problems with the students until they seem to have mastered the idea, before giving them some to try on their own. Explicit or direct instruction is a useful

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The students who are in need of extra assistance are evaluated by a teacher and determined their best partner or tutor (“Research”, 2008). The struggling students have the opportunity to be taught by their peers and will switch roles to teach their tutor (“Research”, 2008). When students switch roles it plays a significant role in the peer-assisted learning, “Having students “teach” others is an important part of the learning process, so giving students with special needs a chance to explain to another student is valuable” (Van de Walle et al., 2013, p. 99). When students explain to their math tutor the skill they have been practicing this shows that they have absorbed the content of the lesson. The explanation process is another way of evaluating where a student stands in their understanding because if they can explain it, they are more likely to remember it and be able to do it. Peer-assisted learning has many other positive influences in the classroom such as the opportunity to motivate students to learn, make new friends, practice skills, and many more (“Research”, 2008). Students who are struggling or have mild disabilities have shown improvement when being put into a peer-assisted learning program. It allows them to learn content from someone their age and gives them the opportunity to practice what they have