# Pre-Teaching Research Paper

Another common general practice that teachers can use to help students with learning disabilities is called pre-teaching. Munk, Gibb, and Caldarella (2010) define pre-teaching as “the advance introduction of information that prepares students for upcoming instruction” (as cited in Berg and Wehby, p. 15). The introduction of difficult concepts and vocabulary can have a significant impact on a student’s progress understanding of new course material. Pre-teaching does not simply have to address vocabulary or concepts for an upcoming lecture. Instead, pre-teaching can be used to review previous concepts learned from a previous section. “Activation of prior knowledge must be purposeful to be effective. A discussion of prior knowledge

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“When provided as an accommodation , cue cards help students with LD focus on implementing the critical steps of processes rather than retrieving steps from memory… they serve as a model, template, or example of effective learning” (Conderman and Hedin, p. 165). The cue cards could be general or very specific. The research suggests that students with learning disabilities often have a difficult time with structuring processes working through to the answer. The cue cards can provide a subtle reminder of the steps a student should take in order to answer a problem. An algebra cue card might suggest several steps and then conclude with a task suggesting the student check his or her work. Again, the Algebra cue card could also demonstrate a mnemonic device such as “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” in order for the student to remember the order of operations: parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, and subtraction. The cue cards are not intended to give the answers to the student but to help the student recall concepts that the student needs in order to arrive at the correct answer. Gradually the cue cards will be tapered off as the student begins to arrive at the correct answers with less reference to the cue card. While this method can be applied to many courses across the curriculum, students with learning disabilities might still need a

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In this process, the student first solves the problem and verbalizes the processes used, then writes he step-by-step process and identifies it on the model.” (Miles and Forchs, p. 6). While the teacher is helping the student along, he or she can monitor what areas the student might be struggling with. If the teacher is instructing a large classroom, this strategy might be better done in small groups. There is considerable evidence to indicate a that verbalizing upper level math problems has a pos6itive impact. “Nahrgang and Peterson (1986) used writing in college-level classes, including algebra and calculus, to improve students’ comprehension, formulation, and evaluation of mathematical concepts.” (as cited in Miles, D., & Forcht, J. (1995). Not only does the Cognitive Assault Strategy provide verbalization of mathematical concepts, it also provides a way for students who might be struggling to remember certain mathematical