The Catalytic Effect And Specificity Of Enzymes

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The catalytic effect and specificity of enzymes

1.Introductions to enzymes

Enzymes are proteins that can react with their specific substrates to achieve an highly effective catalyst reaction. .Almost all cellular activities of enzymes involved in the process are required to improve efficiency. Similar to other non-biological catalysts,enzymes provides another reaction route requires lower activation energy (Ea) to increase the number of particles that have a kinetic energy of not less than the activation energy, thus speeding The reaction rate. Most of the reaction rate can be improved hundreds of times by enzyme catalyst. Enzyme as a catalyst itself is not consumed in the reaction process and does not affect the chemical equilibrium
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In addition to few chemical reactions can be reacted in our body spontaneously, the majority of reactions are catalyzed by specific enzymes. An enzyme can identify their unique substrate from thousands of reactants. According to the differences on the degree of specificity of enzyme catalysis, we divide its specificity into three categories: absolute specificity , relative specificity and stereospecificity. If a kind of enzyme can only catalyzed one substrate, it was subjected to absolute specificity, e.g. urease can only hydrolyze urea and decomposed ie into ammonia and carbon dioxide. If an enzyme capable of catalyzing a compound or a class of chemically bonding to react , we called relative specificity, like …show more content…
Enzyme activity can also be influenced by temperature, chemical environment (e.g. pH), substrate concentration, and electromagnetic waves (e.g. microwaves), and many other factors.
There are some characteristics of enzymes:
1). Efficiency: the efficiency of the enzyme catalyst is higher than inorganic catalyst, therefore speed up reaction rates;
2.) Specificity: an enzyme can catalyze one or a class of substrates, such as proteases can only catalyze the hydrolysis of proteins into peptides.
3. )Diversity: there are many types of enzymes have been found , the number of enzymes in organisms is much larger than we discovered.
4. )Mild: It refers to a chemical reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme under relatively mild conditions.
5. )the Activity of enzymes can be adjusted: including inhibitors and activators regulate, feedback inhibition regulate , Covalent modification and Allosteric regulation adjustment etc.
6.)Volatility: Most enzymes are proteins, which will be destroyed under heat, acid, alkali and so

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