Essay On Urine Formation
Urine formation in healthy individuals differs from that of persons who have diabetes mellitus. First, normal urine formation will be explained. Following that explanation two specific changes that can occur when diabetes mellitus is present will be discussed.
Urine Formation in Healthy Individuals
Humans must rid their bodies of toxic waste products such as nitrogenous waste, urea, uric acid, and creatinine. One system in place to handle this task is the urinary system. This system is comprised primarily of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidneys form urine so this is the only part of the system that will be discussed here.
In healthy individuals the kidneys use a network …show more content…
These occur at different segments of the tubes and parts in the nephrons. A nephron consists of two primary structures - a renal corpuscle and renal tubules which extend from the cortex of the kidney into the medulla via what is called the nephron loop. Inside the renal corpuscle is a ball of capillaries called the glomerulus. This is where glomerular filtration takes place. Glomerular filtration is the first part of urine formation. This is where blood is filtered and water and solutes (solutes include nutrients, electrolytes, and glucose) move out of the glomeral cappilaries, forming glomerular filtrate. Glomerular filtrate is similar to blood plasma other than it does not contain proteins, this is because the capulary membranes are to small to allow these to pass through it. The renal tubule starts at the glomerulus and makes various sections of loops. The first is the proximal convoluted tubule, this is where the majority of water and solutes (including glucose) from the tubular fluid (once the fluid leaves the glomerus it is called tubular fluid) are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. The next is the nephron loop which has a descending section followed by an ascending section. These tubes are where the salt concentration is regulated for the pull of water into and out of the interstitial fluid. The distal convoluted tubule