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    When you search to define the word garden, its definition emerges only as an area of ground where plants (such as flowers and vegetables) are grown according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. However, to Enlightenment writer and French philosophe Francois-Mari Arouet, a garden represents much more than just that. Going by his pen name Voltaire, Francois uses a manifold of symbols such as the garden throughout his satirical novel Candide. This novel express Voltaire’s wit by frequently exploiting the nature of humans to examine others’ circumstances and lifestyles to be better than that of their own. Although Candide is a satirical irony throughout, Voltaire discloses one of his beliefs through his protagonist character near the end that one should cultivate their garden, or in other words, discontinue optimistic beliefs and become practical and productive. The Garden in Constantinople is used by Voltaire to provide implications, comparisons to other gardens, and new attitudes toward the world. Voltaire uses the Garden in Constantinople to provide implications such as one must take responsibility for their actions and find a tolerable state. He demonstrates this, especially through Candide, who spends most of his time believing the teachings of philosophical optimist Pangloss who Voltaire brilliantly parodied. “He proved admirably that there cannot possibly be an effect without a cause and that in this the best of all possible worlds,” (2). Therefore, Candide followed this…

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    Satire is used in literature to criticize and point out society’s flaws. The criticism is usually masked in humour. Irony is commonly used in satires to expose flaws, an effective example is John Smith’s A Modest Proposal, in this essay he effectively uses irony, to communicate his argument about the poverty in Ireland. Similarly, in Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale she criticizes the society that women live in. Atwood uses satire to display the oppression of women in political, religious…

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    Every story written reflects upon another aspect of the human condition. In Voltaire’s Candide, the reader is taken on a journey with an innocent boy who has the hardships and brutalities of the world revealed to him over the course of the book. Along the way, the main character, Candide, encounters an old woman who has lived a full life in that she has lived at both ends of the wealth spectrum. As they become better acquainted with one another, she recounts her life story to Candide and Miss…

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    In novels, we often encounter characters that are oblivious to reality and only see what they want to see. In Voltaire’s “Candide,” Dr. Pangloss is one of those characters. Throughout Voltaire’s short novel, Dr. Pangloss’ philosophy of optimism makes him appear blind to the suffering he goes through. Voltaire intentionally uses the characterization of Dr. Pangloss to poke fun at Leibniz’s philosophy. Similarly, to “Candide,” Jane Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice” also include characters who pride…

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    During the Age of Enlightenment, thinkers believed in reason, liberty, and scientific methods instead of tradition and religion. Many writers published their works that stated the problems of the misuse of religion and the importance of critical thinking. Moliere was one of writers during the Age of Enlightenment, known mostly for his comedy. He was a French play writer who wrote the comedy Tartuffe, which shows the concept of religious hypocrisy, ignorance and fanaticism. In the drama, he…

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    The age of Enlightenment is an intellectual movement which began in England in the 17th century. The enlightenment focused on the power and humans rationality. It was a scientific approach to religious, social, economic, and political issues. The enlightenment was an attempt to improve humanity conditions by applying rational thoughts to natural happenings. Voltaire depicted the ideas of the Enlightenment but was satirized into his novella, Candide. Through his novella Candide, Voltaire added…

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    Voltaire’s model for Dr. Pangloss was Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, as is made obvious by the agreement between their philosophies. In Candide, Voltaire wishes to show that Leibniz’s philosophy is unhelpful for practical purposes and can even be a hindrance at times. In his book, Theodicy: Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man, and the Origin of Evil, Leibniz discusses his idea that we live in the “best of all possible worlds” because God would have chosen to create it as so. In…

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    Voltaire was an educated writer from Paris who had the displeasure of experiencing the decay of society during the Reformation era to the 1700’s Enlightenment period. He was nauseated with all the social structures. Not to mention, the delusional optimism that plagued the explanations for people’s suffering that was happening in his lifetime.. By analyzing chapters in his book Candide, I will show how Volaire brilliantly uses satire of his character’s experiences and mindsets to ridicule and…

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    At the beginning of his novel, “Candide,” Voltaire introduces the character Pangloss and his greatest philosophical and spiritual ideas he passes to Candide and Cunégonde: “Pangloss gave instruction in metaphysico-theologico-cosmoloonigology. He proved admirably that there cannot possibly be an effect without a cause and that in this best of all possible worlds the Baron’s castle was the best of all castles and his wife the best of all possible Baronesses. It is clear, said he, that things…

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    At the climax of Voltaire’s novel Candide, the main character Candide’s wife Cunegonde is enslaved in another country against her will. “A Bulgarian captain came in, saw me all bleeding, and the solder not in the least disconcerted. The captain flew into a passion at the disrespectful behavior of the brute, and slew him on my body.”(17) This image portrays Cunegonde being sexually abused and rescued by a member of the Bulgarian Army. This depicts the common theme between all of the female…

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