Gottfried Leibniz

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    mathematicians argue Isaac Newton invented calculus; others say it was Gottfried Leibniz. Let’s start with Isaac Newton. Isaac Newton attended the University of Cambridge. In 1666 he was sent home due to a plague, thus resulting in free time on his own. Because of this, he came up with what we know now as calculus. Newton didn’t call it calculus then, his term for it was “The Method of Fluxions”. To proof his work, he relied on concrete reality, limits, and geometric proofing. As he was a very conservative individual, Isaac Newton refused to publicize his works to the world and kept his findings…

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    book . Then How this era looking at the women and what they are suffering from . Finally , how these women in this book considered as a female testimony to the failure of optimism . Theory of optimism known in the 18th century . According to the theory, no matter how confusing and unfair life may seen, everything happens for the best because each event is a precisely placed monad in the Creator’s universal chain. The notion of philosophical optimism is most often linked with the name…

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    describe and yet has been with us from the start. From a religious perspective, many cannot understand why an infinitely good being such as God would allow this evil suffering and pain to exist unless and feel betrayed by Him. Evil, to these people, is the direct opposite of God’s goodness and a world containing it is far inferior to a world that does not. This is precisely what German mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz attempts to explain in his book Theodicy. In Theodicy,…

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    their religious tolerance of the Quakers and other fringe religious beliefs, and their superior advancement into empirical science and philosophy—embodied by Bacon, Locke, and Newton—as well as their appreciation for unconventional art and literature, focusing particularly on William Shakespeare. He praised the progressiveness of English society in his 1733 publication, Lettres philosophiques, comparing England’s progressivism to the oppressiveness and religious intolerance of his native…

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    One of the main themes throughout the Enlightenment period deals with man’s place in the universe and his relationship with God. Many Enlightenment thinkers share the thought that God has no imperfections, therefore he created a perfect world that we humans live in today. German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz claims that God has created the best of all possible worlds. Two of the most well known Enlightenment writers, Alexander Pope and Francois-Marie Arouet, better known as Voltaire,…

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    Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz shook the world with his early 18th century essay entitled Monadology. This essay revolves around one key philosophical concept; if the deity is truly perfect, then the universe that the deity created is a reflection of its perfection. In conclusion, whatever happens is for the better in the plan of the deity. This philosophical concept is still widely accepted today, especially among religious groups. Despite being part of the Enlightenment, Voltaire attacks the…

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    John Locke's Argument Against Innate Ideas

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    was Rene Descartes. Descartes being a rationalist had completely different thoughts on innate ideas in comparison to Locke. It was his belief that we do in fact have ideas that are present in the mind when we are born. For Descartes, these ideas are considered innate but for Locke, this ideas are considered reflections. He claimed that no ideas are present until they are reflected upon and then deduced. The only exception to this was that of the idea of God in which Descartes believed to be…

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    Introduction Gottfried Wilheim Leibniz lived between 1646 and 1716. He was a German philosopher, mathematician and logician. In his contribution to philosophy, he is known for his wide range of thought about fundamental philosophical ideas and principles which includes truth, necessary and contingent truths, possible worlds, the principle of pre-established harmony and the principle of non-contradiction. His principle of pre-established harmony argues that God created the universe in such a way…

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    Voltaire’s Candide is one of the most famous works of the Enlightenment. Voltaire questions a huge variety of ideas and social establishments through his satire, including the philosophy of Optimism promoted by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It is generally accepted that Candide disputes Leibniz ' optimism; there are many instances that indicate this in the text, especially surrounding the Eldorado episode. Optimism is the idea that God created the “best of all possible worlds” (Leibniz 228), and…

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    Moral Evil Vs Natural Evil

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    consequence of moral evil” (Elwell, 2001 412). In this case, moral evil is interrelated with certain crimes i.e. social injustices, catastrophes, while natural evil are the results of moral evil “the just happen method”. However, moral evil is not consider the blame for natural evil i.e. tornadoes, earthquakes, and humane struggle because in most cases some things just tend to happen. For example, Adam had a choice but he willfully chose to disobey God, and the “curse” was brought on mankind…

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