Al-Andalus

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    This new surge of intellectualism was matched by economic developments that led al-Andalus–and the dhimmi–to new heights. While other dhimmi took advantage of cultural and social opportunities, still countless others became active participants and leaders in economy. Earlier, it had been mentioned that the dhimmi were considered second class citizens, which can also be translated to an urban middle class that had access to multiple professional and administrative careers. They collaborated closely with Muslims to urbanize the empire and be recognized as a global economic power. Attracting millions, cities of intellectualism were among the first to develop into major urban centers, followed by several others. By the 10th century, Cordoba was home to a population of more than 500,000–the largest European city until then. Great cities such as itself , Madrid, Seville, Toledo, and others soon boasted running water, paved streets, lush gardens, hundreds of exquisite mosques, and even streetlights (“The Cities”). During his travels, ibn Battuta, visited Granada, “the metropolis of Andalusia and the bride of its cities”, and remarked in awe:…

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    What the Visigoths did not know, was that Spain was already a mixed culture with a very large Jewish community. When the Visigoths converted to Roman Christianity, they began to harass and antagonize the Jewish community. While the Visigoths were persecuting the Jews, a new religion known as Islam, was born that united Arabic tribes, such as the Berbers. These Arabic tribes would crossover into the Strait of Gibraltar and defeat the Visigoth King of Spain. To help them in their conquest of the…

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    Muslim Invasion Of Spain

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    Muslim Invasion allowed for a continuity or a disruption of Spanish culture. Famed Spanish scholars such as Claudio Sanchéz-Albornoz and Américo Castro differed heavily in regards to whether the Muslim Invasion fragmented the continuity of Spanish culture or created a social structure which allowed for its prosperity. The immediate impact of the Muslim Invasion in 711 devastated the political structure of Spain. Spain, which was known as Al-Andalus for several hundred years after the invasion,…

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    His use of a hypostyle mosque plan accommodated for both functions of the mosque. The original mosque measured seventy-four square meters, with “the prayer hall roof supported by columns sustaining ten arcades of twelve bays each, including a central aisle that [was] very slightly wider than the others and distinguished by red column shape.” The incorporation of varying column styles reflected the cultural history of al-Andalus. Many of the capitals recycled for use in the mosque were remnants…

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    Religion In Medieval Spain

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    write poetry in Hebrew and include parts of their own scripture within the writing style. Jews would tend to have Muslim teachers, because once they overtook the Visigoths, Jews had to learn Arabic to communicate to the community. Christians, however, typically did not contribute much intellect until after the medieval period. Solely, because they believed science to minimize God’s importance and their faith to their religion. Arabic had a strong influence on Medieval Spain. Mozarabs, which were…

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    Islamic Empire Motivation

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    The battle al-Yarmuk, Heraclius gathered Greeks, Syrians, Mesopotamians and Armenians numbering about 200,000 men, the Muslims had gathered about 24,000 men from the Lakhm, the Judham, and other tribes. About 70,000 of the 200,000 men were killed by the Muslims and the remaining forces fled from al-Yarmuk to Palestine, Antioch, Aleppo, Mesopotamia, and Armenia. These battles provides a clear view of the military power of the Islamic Empire. The main motivation for the Islamic Empire 's military…

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    Spanish Unity In Spain

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    race of Christians were unfounded. As declared by the Christian martyr Eulogius, “The blessed martyr Eulogius answered him smiling: ‘If only you could know what things are laid up for those of our faith! Or I could place in your breast what I possess in my own; […] but even more gladly would you yourself think of giving up your worldly position” the theological debate sometimes boils down to an executioner and a martyr stating whose religion is better (The Martyrs of Cordoba, 65). With regards…

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    The Spanish Alhambra

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    The Alhambra, translating to “the red” in the Arabic language represents the shade of red the palace reflects when the sun is setting for the day. The palace is located in Granada, Spain and it is the most recognized architectural piece of Islamic art. The red castle has been the symbol of the city for nearly 800 years. The Alhambra was constructed during the 13th and 14th century on its red hill-top during the ruling of Ibn al-Ahmar (Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica). It was last…

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    The entire world was impacted with the Islamic civilization. Areas of commerce, technology, medicine, navigation, astronomy, and other scientific areas were touched by the hand of new discoveries brought forth by the learning centers of the Islamic world. The Islamic caliphates had an economy that was flourishing due to the established trade routes. The procession of people trading through the region also spawned the development of technologies, ideas, and spread the religion of Islam across…

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    "Arabic became the almost universal language of arts, sciences and letters between 750 and 1250," explains Arthur Goldschmidt, Jr., in his book "A Concise History of the Middle East." A long list of Arabic words entered Western languages at this time, and were part of both scientific and philosophical lexicons, and the language of trade and commerce. They include: al-kuhl (alcohol), al-miral (admiral), sukkar (sugar) and qahwah (coffee). Arabic's prominent use in Muslim Spain caused…

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