Intellectualism In The Late 19th Century

711 Words 3 Pages
This new surge of intellectualism was matched by economic developments that led al-Andalus–and the dhimmi–to new heights. While other dhimmi took advantage of cultural and social opportunities, still countless others became active participants and leaders in economy. Earlier, it had been mentioned that the dhimmi were considered second class citizens, which can also be translated to an urban middle class that had access to multiple professional and administrative careers. They collaborated closely with Muslims to urbanize the empire and be recognized as a global economic power.
Attracting millions, cities of intellectualism were among the first to develop into major urban centers, followed by several others. By the 10th century, Cordoba was home to a population of more than 500,000–the largest European city until then. Great cities such as itself , Madrid, Seville, Toledo, and others soon boasted running water, paved streets, lush gardens, hundreds of exquisite mosques, and even streetlights (“The Cities”). During his travels, ibn Battuta, visited Granada, “the metropolis of Andalusia and the bride of its cities”, and remarked in awe:
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They extend for the space of forty miles, and are traversed by...streams. Around it on every side are orchards, gardens, flowery meads, noble buildings, and vineyards. (“On to al-Andalus and Morocco”)
Considering that the golden age of Islamic Spain took place during the medieval period, it impressed many that the Iberians managed to accomplish such an impressive feat of cultural excellence and urbanization; this could have only been done through considerable work and the synergy of the Iberians and

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