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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Social Psychology

The study of the causes and consequences of sociality.

Social Behaviour

How people interact with each other.

Social Influence

How people change each other.

Social Cognition

How people think about each other.


Behaviour with the purpose of harming another.

Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis

A principle stating that animals aggress when their goals are thwarted.


Behaviour by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit.


A collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others.


A positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership.


A positive or negative behaviour toward another person based on their group membership.

Common Knowledge Effect

The tendency for group discussions to focus on information that all members share.

Group Polarization

The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than any member would have made alone.


The tendency for groups to reach consensus in order to facilitate interpersonal harmony.


A phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values.

Diffusion of Responsibility

The tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way.

Social Loafing

The tendency for people to expend when in a group that when alone.

Bystander Intervention

The act of helping strangers in an emergency situation.


Behaviour that benefits another without benefiting oneself.

Kin Selection

The process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives.

Reciprocal Altruism

Behaviour that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future.

Mere Exposure Effect

The tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure.

Passionate Love

An experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction.

Companionate Love

An experience involving afection, trust, and concern for a partner's well-being.

Social Exchange

The hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favourable ratio of costs to benefits.

Comparison Level

The cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship.


A state of affairs in which the cost-benefits ratios of two partners are roughly equal.

Social Influence

The ability to control another person's behaviour.

Hedonic Motive

People are motivated to experience pleasure and to avoid experiencing pain.

Approval Motive

People are motivated to be accepted and to avoid being rejected.

Accuracy Motive

People are motivated to believe what is right and to avoid believing what is wrong.


Customary standards for behaviour that are widely shared by members of a culture.

Norm of Reciprocity

The unwritten rule that people should benefit those that have benefited them.

Normative Influence

Another person's behaviour provides information about what is appropriate.

Door-in-the-Face Technique

An influence strategy that involves getting someone to deny an initial request.


The tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it.


The tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do.


An enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event.


An enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event.

Informational Influence

Another person's behaviour provides information about what is true.


A person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person.

Systematic Persuasion

The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason.

Heuristic Persuasion

The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion.

Foot-in-the-Door Technique

Making a smaller request and then following it with a larger request.

Cognitive Dissonance

An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs.

Social Cognition

The processes by which people some to understand others.


The process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong.

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

The tendency for people to behave as they are expected to behave.

Stereotype Threat

The fear of confirming the negative beliefs that others may hold.

Perceptual Confirmation

The tendency for people to see what they expect to see.


The tendency for people who receive disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them.


Inferences about the causes of people's behaviour.

Correspondence Bias

The tendency to make a dispositional attribution when we should instead make a situational attribution.

Actor-Observer Effect

The tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviours while making dispositional attributions for the identical behaviour of others.