Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

294 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
opioid drugs all belong to the class known as __
narcotic analgesics
reduce all sensations by depressing the central nervous system and produce unconsciousness
opium is an extract of the __
poppy plant
created by an english physician thomas sydenham, included "2 ounces of strianed opoium"used for teething pain and restlessness in infancts
required physicians to report their prescriptions for opoiods; limited prescripitons to medical use making it illegal to provide opioids for addicted individuals or recreational use
the Harrison Narcotics Act (1914)
the principal ingredient in opium was called __
why was german chemist Friedrich Wilhelm Serturner's method of extracting morphine crystals from the milky juice of teh poppy seed capsule important to psychopharmacology
it was the first time the active ingredient of any medicinal plant was ioslated
the naturally occurring opiate __ is identical in structure to morphine except for the substitution of of a methoxy for a hydroxyl group. This small molecular difference produces a drug that has less analgesic effect and fewer side efects than morphine but is still a potent cough suppressant
invented by the Bayer Company to be more effective in relieving pain without the danger of addiction
__ is 2-4x more potenet than morpine beause when injected, it travels faster due to a change in the molecule that makes he drug more lipid soluble and allows it to get into the brain much more quickly
when taken orally, morphine and heroin have __
equal potency
some modifications to morphines molecular structure produces __ which are drugs that bind readily to the receptors but produce less biological effect
partial agonists
when administered alone, partial opioid agonists produce __
partial opioid effects
when given along iwth an opioid that has a higher effectiveness, partial opioid antagonists __
compete for the receptor and subsequently reduce the action of the more effective drug
kinds of drugs that have structures similar to those of the opiates but produce no pharmacological activiy of their own
pure antagonists
two kinds of pure opioid antagonists
naloxone and nalorphine
can prevent or reverse the effect of administered opiods because tf their ability to occupy opioid receptor sites
opioid receptor antagonists
when morphoine is administered for medical purposes, it is usually __ or __
injected intramuscularly, given orally
methods of administration for opioids in recreational users (4)
smoking, snorting, subcutaneous skin popping, injections
__ easily passes through the placental barrier
At __ doses of opioids, pain is relieved, repirationis somewhat depressed, and pupils are contricted
low to moderate doses (5-10 mg)
opiods have thier most important effects on teh __ and __ systems
central nervous, gastrointestinal
because opioids have actions in teh __, some researchers suggest that the drugs relieve "psychological pain" including anxity, feelings of inadequacy, and hostility, which may lead to increased drug use
limbic system
morphines affect on teh chemical trigger zone (__) in teh brainstem elicits nausea and vomiting
area postrema
__ is the ultimate cuase of death in an opioid overdose
respiratory failure
opiods are still one of the most imporatnt lifesaving drugs because of its ability to __
cause constipation and stop fluid loss assocaited with diarrhea
opioid receptors were labled via __
radioactive ligands
four opiod receptor subtypes
mu, delta, kappa, and NOP-R
the __ receptor has a high affinity for morpihine and related opiod drugs, have a wide distirbution in the brain and spinal cord, and play a rol ein morphine induced analgesia and positive reinforcement
A type of opioid receptor primarily in the forebrain that may help regulate olfaction, motor integration, reinforcement, and cognitive function.
delta receptors
An opioid receptor located in the striatum, amygdala, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland that may help regulate pain, perception, gut motility, dysphoria, water balance, hunger, temperature, and neuroendocrine function.
opioid receptor that is widely distibuted, plas a role in analgeisa, feeding learing, motor function, and neuroendocrine regulation
opioid receptors mediate __ responses
group of endogenous opioid peptides in teh brain that stimulate mu and elta opioid receptors, reducing pain and enhancing ones general mood
one of the four large opioid propeptide precursors that are broken down by proteases to form smaller active opioids (DYNORPHINS) in the barin
one of the four large opioid propeptide precursors that are broken down by proteases to form smaller active opioids (ENKEPHALINS) in teh brain
one of the four large opioid propeptide precursors that are broken down by proteases to form smaller active opioids (NOCICEPTIN, ORPHANIN FQ) in teh brain
pronociceptin/orphanin FQ
one of the four large opioid propeptide precursors that are broken down by proteases to form smaller active opioids (ENDORPHINS) in teh brain
pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)
a group of endogenous opiod peptides in the CNS that selectively bind to the mu opioid receptor and eliminate pain; are as potent as morphine in reducing pain
mapping of the pathways utilizing the endogenous opioids was achieved by __ to visualize propetide mRNA, and __ to localize the propetide itself
in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry
__ receptor signaling in particulaur seems to modify the preference or liking of some foods over others
the overall effects of the neuropeptides on nerve cell function include the __ and subsequent __ and __
reduction of membrane excitability, slowing of cell firing, inhibition of neurotransmitter release
three principal ways that neuropeptides reduce synaptic transmission:
1. postynaptic inhibition; 2. axoaxonic inhibition; 3. presynaptic autoreceptors
networks of free nerve endings that are sensitive to intense presure, extreme temperature including heat and cold, eletrical impulses, cuts, chemical irritants, and inflammation
early pain signals go to primary and secondary __
the __ and other limbic areas are especially activated by late pain information
anterior cingulte cortex
represents the immediate sensory component of pain and signals the onset of a noxious stimulus and its precise location to cause immediate withdrawl and escape from the damaging stimulus
first (early) pain
kind of pain that has a strong emotional component, that is, the unpleasantness of the sensation
second (late) pain
adaptation occurs more slowly to the __ component of pain so it attracts our attention in prolonged fashion to motivate behaviors that limit further damage and aid recovery
__ is less localized and is moften acompanied by autonomic responses such as sweating, fallin BP, or nausea
late pain
__ pain is temporally related to activation of the primary somatosensory cortex
__ pain is strongly associated with the anterior cingulate activation
3 ways in which opioids regulate pain
1. within the spinal cord by small inhibitory interneurons 2. two significant descending pathways originating in the periaqueductal gray 3. at many higher brain sites, explains teh effects on emotional and hormonal aspects of the pain response
two ways in which opioids reduce the transmission of pain signals at the spinal cord
1. small inhibitory spinal interneurons release endorphins that inhibit the activation of the spinal projection neruons

2. endorphins either directly inhibit the projecting neuron, the excitiatory neuron, or excite the inhibitory opioid neuron
bundles of nerve fibers originating at higher brain regions that influence lower brain or spinal cord function. one arises from the PAG in teh midbrain and inluences pain signals carried by the spinal cord neurons
descending modulatory pathways
the most important descending pathways begin in teh __
a brain area rich in endogenous opioid peptides and high concentrations of opioid receptors particularly mu and kappa
treatment of chronic pain in human patients with electrical stimulation of the __
acupuncture reases __ that have widespread effects in teh brain and gastrointestinal system
endogenous opioids
pain is the emotional component carried by __ fibers and transmitted to the thalamus with collaterals to limbic areas including the anterior cingulate
a gene therapy clinical tria showed that the gene coding for __ carried by an HSV viral vecotr reduced pain in patients with cancer with minimal side effects
the fact that morphine and othe ropioids lower the __ for self-stimulation indicates that the drugs enhance the brain reward system
electrical current theshold
the endogenous opioid __ is self administered, which storngly suggests that it mediats opioid reinforcement
two methods used to identify teh neurobiology of opioid reinforcement
1. self admininstration of opioid ligands microinjected into discrete brain areas is evaluated. 2. selective lesions identify brain areas and neurotransmitter pathways that eliminate opioid induced reinforcement
__ studies from many laboratories demonstrate the contribution of the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway to opioid reinforcement
tolerance to the analgesic effect of opoioids is __, but the consitpaitng effects and pinopoint pupils __
rapid, occurs even after prolonged use
__ has a cross tolerance with heroin
selective agonists for a receptor reduce the effectivenss of the __
same kind of receptor
most tolerance to opioids is baed on __
changes in nerve cells that compensate for the presence of chronic opoioids (pharmacodynamic tolerance
in some circumstances, repeated exposure to poioids causes the __ of a drug to increase via sensitization
since opoioids in general depress CNS function, we consider opoioid withdrawlal wot be __
rebound hyperactivity
the five factors affecting howl ong withdrawal symptoms last
drugs used, dosage, freuquency, duratinof drug use, health and personality of the addict
the longer the duration of action of the opoioid, the more __
prolonged is the abstinence syndrome
the point at which abstinence signs end
the __ and __ are particularly senstivie to opioid antagonists in terms of precipitating the physiological aspects of withdrawal.
locus coeruleus and the PAG
the __ may be important in teh aversive stimulus effects or motivational aspect of opoid withdrawal
a semisynthetic opioid that works in a manner similar to morphine
the fact that oxycontin __ encourages teh injectin of the drug which increases the subjective effects but also increases the dangers of overdose and medical prolems associated with needle use
readily dissolves in water
__ is a slow release oxycodone that is surrounded by a hard gelatin capsule that prevents tampering or the removal of teh drug with a needle
an immediate-release oxycodone that also contains niacin that produces flushing and otehr unpleasant effects if the durg is taken in higher that prescribed doeses. it comes as a gel to prevent use by inhalation
acurox with niacin
himmelsbachs theroitical model of tolerance and withdrawal staes that the nervous system __ so tolerance devleops but if the drug is suddenly withdrawn, the __
adapts to teh disturbing presensce of a drug, the adaptive mechanism continues to function causeing a rebound in phyiological effects
a perosn who can inject any substance and achieve some measure of the "high" associated with drug taking
needle freak
environmental cues acting as secondary reinforcers, may act as __ that promote drug taking becasue they remind the individual of how the drug feels
often referred to as going "cold turkey"
unassisted detoxification
opoioid detoxification may be assisted by teh administration of a long acting opioid drug like __ which reduces symptoms to a comfortable level
an alpha 2 adrenergic agonist that stimulate autoreceptors and inhibits noradrenergic cell firing. it is used to reduce symptoms of opioid withdrawal after methadone
__ can be used for opoioid treatement when pharmacological intervnetion is unaviavlable
the most commonly used treatement method for heroin addiction is the __
methadone maintenance program
one major risk of methadone treatment for opioid abuse is __
accidental overdose
five reasons that methadone was chosen for use in opioid drug treatment programs for several reasons
1. cross-dependence with morphine/heroin prevents withdrawal associated with drug abuse

2. cross tolerance from repeated methadone use reduces eupohric effects of heroin

3. due to oral administration, little to no euphoria is felt but is fully effective in relieving craving for opioids

4. methadone is relatively long acting

5. methadone is considered medically safe even with longterm use
an opioid agonist-antagonist used in opioid treatment programs that may be substituted for methadone and yields similar treatment results
buprenorphine (Buprenex)
buprenorphine can also be taken __ to further reduce its potential for IV use
the most commonly used narcotic antagonists because it has a longer durationof axion than naloxone and is effictive when taken orally
naltrexone (trexan)
a newer pure opioid antagonists that is similar to naltrexone but more potent and longer lasting
Nalmefene (Revex)
a method that is effective for highly motivated, have strong family support, and are involved in carrers
narcotic antagonists
__ are being thought of as a treatment option for opooids by creating antibodies that would bind to drugs and prevent them from entering teh brain
most often, opioid addicts benefit from a __ that includes a combination of detoxification, pharmacological support, and group or individual counseling
multidimensional aproach
opioid drugs inhibit __ cells, increasing mesolimbic cell firing and DA release in the NAcc.
inhibitory GABA
a model of the physiological mechanism for tolerance and dependence of opioidsis the compensatory response of cells in teh locus coeruleus to teh acute inhibition of __
adenylyl cyclase
Condition characterized by unpleasant symptoms when an individual tries to cease drug use.
abstinence syndrome
Condition in which a drug user undergoing detoxification does not show signs of the abstinence syndrome.
Treatment that involves a combination of methods to prevent drug abuse relapse, including detoxification, pharmacological support, and counseling.
multidimensional approach
Class of drugs originally derived from the opium poppy that reduce pain but do not cause unconsciousness. They create a feeling of relaxation and sleep in an individual, but in high doses can cause coma or death.
narcotic analgesics
Nerve cells with short axons within the spinal cord.
spinal interneurons
Process used to introduce genetic material into a cell by injecting it with a DNA sequence coding for the desired protein product.
term that referes to the marked sensorimotor activation that occurs in response to drug administration
psychomotor stimulants
an alkaloid found in teh leaves of the shrub erythroxylon coca
one of the biggest supporters of the use of cocaine
sigmund freud
what were the two successful waves of increasing cocaine use in teh US?
1. cuased by snorting or IV

2. most recent driven by crack cocaine
in teh __ cocaine use by snorting or IV injection increased
__ synthetic cocaine like drugs have been synthesized
the cocaine alkaloid is extracted from coca leaves and tehn converted to a __ and crystallized
hydochloride salt (HCL)
__ is lipophilic (fat soluble) so it crosses the BBB faster, especially when smoked
people take cocaine and depressants to __
"take the edge off"
high concentrations of cocaine inhibit __
voltage gated Na+ channels in axons
in animal models, low doses of cocaine result in increased __, __, and __
locomotion, rearing, adn mild sniffing behavior
in humans, the preference to cocaine depends on the __ __, and__
type of user, dose, and value of the alternative reinforcer
cocaine is __, it produces symptoms of sympathetic nervous activation
__ plays the most important role in mediating behavioral responses to cocaine and amphetamine
neurochemical mechanisms of cocaine action have been studed using genetic __
knockout mice
the nucleus accumbens DA pathway has also been implicated in cocaine reward using paradigms that test for __ as a model of relapse
drugs seeking behavior
intensity of a cocaine "high" depends on the amount of __, __, and __
DAT occupancy, rate of DATE occupancy, and baseline level of DA activity in the mesolimbic pathways
there are __ different receptor subtypes of cocaine
passing teh __ prohibited the inclusino of cocaine in teh over teh counter medicines
1914 harrison narcotic act
WIN 35,428 is a synthetic cocaine structure with a __ attached, RTI-55 has a __
F, I
one disadvantage to cocaine HCL is its __
vulerabilty to heat
refres to smoking cocaine that was obtained by dissolving coacine HCL in water, adding an alkaline solution like ammonia, and extracting the resulting cocaine base with an organic solvent like ether
chunks of dried, hardened mixutre of cocaine HCL and backing soda, named for the popping sounds produced when the chunks are heated
__ is the quickest route of administration for cocaine
in a heavy cocaine user, the major metabolite __ can be detected in teh urine for several days following the last dose
when taken together, cocaine and alcohol produce a unique metabolite called __
cocaethylene has a __ than cocaine
longer half life
based on in vitro studies using rat brain tissue, cocaine binds most strongly (with highest affinity) to the __ transporter, followed by teh __ transporter, and tehn teh __ transporter
5-HT, DA, NE
when cocaine is applied locally to a tissues it acts as a local __ by preventing tarnmisson of nerve signals along sensory nerves
two synthetic local anesthetics that are widely used in medical and dental pracice procaine __ and lidocaine __
novocain, xylocaine
mood amplification; euphoria and dysphoria, heightneed energy, sleep disturbance, insomnia, motor excitement, restlessness, talkativenss, pressure of speech, hyperactive ideation, increased sexual interest, anger, verbal agression, mild to moderate anorexia, and inflated self esteem are __ effects of cocaine use
mild to moderate
irritabilty, hositility, anxiety, fear, withdrawal, extremem energy or exhaustion, total insomnia, compulsive motor stereotypes, rambling incoherent speech, disjoiunted flight of ideas, decreased sexual interest, possible extereme violence, total anorxia, and dlusion of grandiosity are __ effects of cocaien use
when cocaine is taken by __, there is often a rush decribed by some users as invloving a sense of great pleasure and power and by others as an intense orgasm
as cocaine dose increases, __, repetitive seemingly aimless behaviors performed in a relatively invariant manner are observed in rats
focused sterotypies
seizures, heart failure, stroke, and intracraninal hemorrhage are all potential adverse consequences of heavy __ use
using different testing paradigms, __, __, and __ DA receptors have all been shown to play various roels in mediateing the behavioral and possibly also teh subjective efects of cocaine exposure
D1, D2, D3
People usuall begin taking cocaine via teh __ route
intranasal (snorting)
initial cocaine use __ leads to subsequent abuse or dependence
does not
episodic bouts of repeated use of cocaine lasting form hours to days with little or no sleep
cocaine binges
the three stages of cocaine abstinence syndrome are __
crash, withdrawal, and extinction
during teh __ period of cocaine absience syndrome, the user feels exhausted and suffere form a dperessed mood
during teh __ period of cocaine absience syndrome, some of the important symptoms including anhedonia anergia, anxiety, and a growing craving for cocaine that increases teh risk of relapse occurs
during teh __ period of cocaine absience syndrome, where symptoms subside
extinction phase
time dependent increase in cocaine craving and drug seeking behavior during abstinence
two phases of cocaine sensitization
induction, expression
the process in which sensitization is established
the process by which teh sensitized response is manifested
__ of other substances seem to be an important rsik factor for the initiation of cocaine use
early use
cocaine craving and relapse to cocaine use increase over time following withdrawla, wich has been called __
incubation of cocaine craving
neuroimaging studies have found that cocaine dependent subjects show abnormal prefontal cortical functioning that cocaine related cues elicit DA release in teh __
dorsal striatum
animal models have supported the hypothesis that both __ and __ are traits that contribute to the development of compulsive cocaine use
sensation seeking, impulsivity
changes in drug responsiveness depend on teh patter of __, the __, and teh __
drug exposure, outcome measure, time since teh last dose
animal studies have implicated increased dopaminergic activity in teh __ and increased __ release as being important for locomotor sensitization to pschostimulants
VTA, nucleus accumbens DA
a stimulant that is currently approved for the treatment oaf narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea but now is used for cocaine treatment.
__, which for years has been marketed s antabuse for teratment of alcohol is used to curb alcohol and cocaine use
counselling programs that invlve educating the user, promooting behavioral change and alleviating problems caused by drug use
psychosocial treatment programs
treatment program for durg abusers that teaches an individual how to avoid and cope with high risk situations
relapse prevention therapy
type of addiction treatement program in which the clients drug taking is monitored by regular urine testing and abstinence is reinforced with vouchers redeemable locally for consumer products or services
contingency management program
chronic exposure to psychostimulants can lead to __
three different behavioral and psychosocial therapy options for cocaine addiction
psychosocial treatment programs, relapse prevention therapy, contingency management programs
the primary active ingredient in khat, anevergreen shrub native to east africa and the arabian peninula
an amphetamine like compound which comes from the herb ephedra vulgaris
ephedrine unfortunately sharply elevates __
blood pressure
amphetamine in tablet form was first marketed in 1935 as a treatment for a sleep disorder called __
amphetamine is typcially taken either __ or by __ or __
orally, IV, subcutaneous injection
common name for methamphetamine hydrochloride in a crystalline form pariculary suitable for smoking
crystal meth, ice
some amphetamine or methamphetamine userse called speed freaks, go on __ of repeated IV injections to experience recurrent highs
during a meth run, the drug is typically injected approximately every __ hours for a period as long as __ days
2, 3-6
meth users on after a run may take __ or other depressant drugs to take the edge off or to assist in sleeping following a run
combining IV meth with heroin
amphetamine and methamphetamine are metabolized by teh __ although at a __ rate
liver, slow
amphetamines and methamphetaimens have long __
amphetamine and methamphetamine are indrect agonists of teh __
catecholaminergic systems
meth blocks __ reuptake and release __ from nerve terminals
catecholamine, catecholamiens
meth causes a reduction in __
sleep time (especially REM)
teh induction fo the neuropeptide CART is responsible for meths __ effects
appetite supressing effects
the most important clinical use fo psychostimulants is in the treatment of a developmental disorder known as __
some research shows that __ are more likely to use meth and are more likely to become dependent on the drug
hallucinations of a parasitic skin infestation for cocaine or meth only occurs after __
chronic use
__ produces damage to serotonergic fibers in parts of the brain including teh neocortex, hippocampus, and striatum
meth causes premature __
mephedrone is most commonly taken by __
a cathinone derivative commonly called bath salts or plant food that is increasing as a substitute for meth
amphetamine use peaked in the __
__ and __ are used to treat ADHD
amphetamine, methylphenidate
a chinese medicine used to treat asthma, form of amphetamine
amphetamines were used to keep soildiers __
meth can be taken __, __ ,__, or __
orally, norted, injected IV, smoked
in the US, __ is the most widely used amphetamine
__ causes damage to DA axons and terminals
used to treat craving and seizure during withdrawal from amphetamines
a non-amphetamine stiulant that improtves cognitive functinoing
an antidepressent used to medicate meth adicts
the most effective treatment for meth addicts is __
cognitive and behavioral interventions
two cateogries of hallucinogenic drugs
hallucinogenic (hallucination producing), psychedelic (mind opening)
hallucinogenic drugs have __ abuse and dependence potential
Hallucinogens are __ reinforcers in animals
not effective
hallucinogenic drugs have __ tolerance with repeated use
hallucinogenic drugs are all schedule __ drugs
level 1 of the psychodelic experience is defined as __
mild "stoned" effect, some visual distrubances
level 2 of the psychodelic experience is defined as __
bright colors/visuals, abstract thought
level 2 of teh psychodelic experience is found at __
low doeses of LSD or regular dose of mushrooms
level 3 of the psychodelic experience is defined as __
very intense visuals, even with eyes closed (kaleidoscopic images, time disortion), synethesia
teh crossing over of sensations (hearing colors)
level 4 of the psychodelic experience is defined as __
really strong hallucinations (may be interactive), loss of reality (mystical exerpience)
level 5 of the psychodelic experience is defined as __
total loss of visual connection and self identity
the level of psychedelic experience where teh spirituality is felt
level 5
level 5 of the psychedelic expereince is common at doeses of __
DMT, strong doses of mushrooms
derived from teh peyote cactus
when the peyote cactus tips are cut off and dried
peyote buttons
the band "the doors" is in refrence to a bood by aluxhuxley called teh doors of perception about the effects of __
mescaline (peyote)
derived from a varieyt of psychedelic mushrooms
the dose needed for psychedelic mushrooms is __ dependent
psilocybin can be eaten __
raw or put into food
once psilocybin is ingested, it is enzymatically converted to __, the psychoactive ingredient in psilocybin
also called dimethyltryptamine
DMT is often brewed in conjunction with __
another plant
found in trace quantities in humans and animals in CSF during near death experiences that may be responsible to the bright lights
LSD is completely a __ drug
invented by a biochemist during research of a fungus that cuased gangrene and psychodelic effects
__ was once used as a respiratory and circulatory stimulant and used to study schizophrenia
type of LSD psychotherapy: used in europe, low dose of LSD that is increased to try to open repressed memories
type of LSD psychotherapy: used in the UK and US, started with single, very high dose of LSD to induce spiritual experience to use as a way to get insight into the self
was tried as a control for alcoholism, psychedelic therapy, and a psycholitic therapy
LSD is __ active
__ was used as a weapon by teh CIA
commonly called Salvia, a part of the mint family. can be chewed, smoked, or ingested via the sublingual
salvinorin A
Salvinorin A is sublingually absorbed in the __
two most important hallucinogens (in order)
LSD, psilocybin
__, __, and __ hallucinogenics are usually administered orally
LSD, psilocybin, mescaline
__ and __ hallucinogenics are usually smoked
DMT and Salvinorin A
__ and __ of teh hallucinogenics are usually very short acting and the effects go away in an hour
DMT and Salvinorin A
the four phases of the psychological and phsiological responses to hallucinogentics
1. beings betwen 30-90 min 2. plateau for next 2 hours (more visual distortions) 3. peak (2-3 hours) dissociative feelings (loss of self identity occur) 4. come down is ~2 hours after peak
associated with mystical spiritual holisitc experiences (good trips)
oceanic boundlessness
assocaited with negative responses to hallucinogenics (bad trips)
ego disintegration anxiety
the illusions and hallucinations brought on by hallucinogens
visual restructuralizaiton
hallucinogens cause __ nervous system activation
diziness and nausea are hallucinogenic symptoms associated with __
molecules similar in structure to serotonin
molecules similar in structure to catecholamines
DMT, LSD, and psilocybin are __
Mescaline is a __, similar to __
phenethylamine, NE
LSD has high binding to __ receptors
the most important receptor subtypes for hallucinogens are __
seratonin 2A and 2C
the serotonin receptor subtype __ is escpecially crtical for hallucinatinos
2 neural mechanisms of hallucinogenic drugs
direct stimulation of pyramidal cells in cortical layer V, indirect activation of deep cortical layers (thalamus) by brainstem neurons
cause acute anxiety or panic reactions induced by hallucinogenics, can be so sever hospitalization is needed
bad trips
the kind of trip you have with psychedelic drugs depends on teh __
emotinal state going in and dosage
re-experiencing one or more of the perceptual symtpoms following use fo a hallucinogen
continued flashbacks well after the administration of a hallucinogen, may be brought on by use of other psychoactive drugs (marijuana)
hallucinogen persisting perception disorder
what drug has been used to treat PTSD?
MDMA (exstacy)
salvinorin A is not absorbed via __
the GI tract
the hallucinogen that is not widely used due to hgih costs of production
ego distintegration is most often associated with which aspect of teh psychedelic experience?
mescaline is similar in structure to ___
what is the primary effect of hallucinogens?
perceptual distortions
PCP was invented in teh 1950's as a potnetial __
anesthetic agent
patients with PCP are unresponsive to __
noxious stimului
PCP has a __ theraputic index
Postoperative side effects __ are:
o Blurred vision
o Dizziness
o Mild disorientation
o Hallucinations
o Agitation
o violence
PCP is a schedule __ drug
used in animal research for schizophrenia
ketamine is a schedule __ drug
__ is widely used for pediatric surgeries for its general sedating property
PCP is usually taken either __, __, or __
orally, intranasal, injection
ketamine is usually taken either __, __, or __
snorted, pill form, injections
__ dose ketamine produces
o Loss of mental contact with environement
o Catatonia
o Near death experience
Anesthetic (higher)
__ and __ dose ketamine
o Detachment, vertigo, floating, affective reactions, conigitve disorganization
o Similar to schizophrenia
o Effects usually unpleasant to subjects
PCP and low
PCP and ketamine are __ noncompetitive agonists
effect of PCP and ketamine that cause cognitive deficits, possibily dissociateve effects
cortex, hippocampus blockade
PCP and ketamine cause increased __ release
presynaptic glutamate
PCP and ketamine cause increased __ in the anterior cingulate cortex, associated with psychotic symptoms
animals will self administer more __ than __ (hallucinogentics
ketmamine, PCP
__ and __ increase dopaminergic cell firing and DA release
PCP and ketamine
PCP is __ used as ketamine
not as freuquently
causes urological damage, bizarre, violent patters, injuries sustained while intoxicated, rhabdomylesis, hyperthermia, seizures, and psychosis
PCP and ketamine cause __ and __ matter abnormalities
gray, white
PCP and ketamine used cause __, the programmed death of cells
what is not an effect following administration of PCP?
respiratory failure
catatonia is a state of __
motor immobility
dessociative hallcinogens can cause all of the following:
sensory distoriton, feelings of detchment, hallucinations
the molecular mechanisms of PCP and ketamine involve increased __ via non-NMDA receptors
compared to traditional hallucinogens such as LSD, PCP and ketamine cuase more __
adverse effects of ketamine include (3)
bladder pain, memory deficits, brian changes
ketamine has been suggested in the treatments of __ and __
depression, pain control
Withdrawal signs occurring in a dependent individual can be terminated by administering drugs in the same class.
cross dependence
Drug-like effects caused by stress or drug-conditioned stimuli that reinstate drug use after abstinence.
An unusual type of anesthetic state characterized by environmental detachment. It is produced by certain noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine and PCP.
dissociative anesthesia
Substance that alters perceptions, state of mind or awareness.