• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a possible definition of consciousness?
A possible definition of consciousness is "the collection of things that we are aware of at any point while being awake, either internally or externally in the environment."
How did William James view the idea of consciousness?
James viewed consciousness as a self-directed entity that couldn't be broken down.
How did Wilhelm Wundt view the idea of consciousness?
Wundt viewed consciousness as something that could be scientifically studied in his laboratory.
How did Sigmund Freud view the idea of consciousness?
Freud believed consciousness has "bad" thoughts/motivations suppressed from it.
How did John Watson view the idea of consciousness?
Watson saw no value in studying consciousness.
What is an altered state of consciousness? What are some ways of attaining such?
An ASC can be defined as some kind of change in consciousness through sleep, meditation, hypnosis, or drugs.
What are circadian rhythms defined as?
Circadian rhythms are defined as a collection of bodily processes that fluctuate over a 24-hour period.
What are some examples of circadian rhythms?
Body temperature
Sleep/Wake cycles
Being alert
What structure in the brain controls circadian rhythms?
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus [SCN]

*aka - the biological clock*
What gland secretes melatonin? What does it do?
The pineal gland.

Melatonin induces sleep. It's absence helps maintain wakefulness.
What were the theories of sleep mention in class? How does each view the purpose of sleep?
-The Circadian Theory of Sleep/Evolution Theory: we evolved a mechanism (sleeping) for staying out of harm's way from nocturnal threats.

The Restorative Theory: we subject our bodies to everyday wear & tear whilst being awake; sleep allows for repairs to take place.
What are some differences between NREM & REM sleep?
NREM sleep - absence of rapid eye movement, compromised of 4 stages (with 1 being the lightest & 4 being the deepest), 75-80% of sleep time is spent in NREM sleep.

REM sleep - voluntary muscle movements are paralyzed, referred to as "active sleep"
What is REM rebound?
An increased amount of REM sleep that occurs after REM deprivation; often associated with nightmares/unpleasant dreams.
How long does the average sleep cycle last?
About 90 minutes are dedicated to each cycle.