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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the scientific study of thought and behavoir
Cognitive Psychology

(4 points)
- how we percieve information

- how we learn and remember

- how we solve problems

- how we acquire and use information
Developmental Psychology

study of how thought and behavoir change and show stability through lifespan

ex) reasoning/emotional skills
Biological Psychology

studies the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and how they influence behavoir and thought

ex) effects of stress on hormones/behavior
Personality Psychology

(3 points)
- what makes people unique

- consistencies in people's behavoir across time and situations

- What are the foundations of behavoir?
Social Psychology
How living among others influences thought, feeling and behavoir
Clinical Psychology

(3 points)
- diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavorial disorders

- largest subdisciplinary in Psychology

- promotes psychological help
Health Psychology

the role psychological factors play in regard to health and illness

ex) how stress is linked to illness
Forensic Psychology
a blend of psychology, law and criminal justice
medicine men or women
drills a small hole in a person's skull to release bad spirits and demons
Three developments made in clinical psychology by the mid-1990s
1) Psychotherapy
2) Drug Treatment
3) Criteria for Diagnosing Mental disorders

(2 points)
-first scientific form of psychology

- studies human perception of light and sound
Wilhem Wundt opened the first psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany

(2 points)
- argued that breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand dthought and behavoir

- understand WHAT PEOPLE ARE MADE OF to understand THEM

(2 points)
- argued it was better to look at WHY the mind works the way it does, than to describe its parts

- created by William James

(2 points)
- asserts that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavoir, not ideas, thought, feelings or motives

- created by John Watson
B.F. Skinner
made behavorism the major approach in experimental psychology
Humanistic Psychology

(3 points)
- theory that promotes personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one's highest potential

- Abraham Maslow

- Carl Rogers
Postivite Psychology

(3 points)
- scientific approach to studying, understanding, and promoting healthy psychological functioning
Gesalt Psychology
theory of psychology that maintains that we percieve things as wholes, rather than as a compiliation of parts
thought and mental processes
Mind-body Dualism

(3 points)
- mind and body are seperate entities

- the mind controls body most of the time

- Rene Descartes
change over time in the frequency with which specific genes occur within a breeding species
"by products"

(2 points)
- structures or features that perform a function that did not arise through natural selection

- things useful for two purposes
scientific thinking

(4 points)
- cognitive skills required to generate, test and revise theories

- must question authority
- must be openly skeptical
- must have intellectual honesty
a set of related assumptions from which a testable prediction can be made
any characteristic that changes
entire group of interest to the researcher

(2 points)
- subset of a larger population

- represents the entire population
Descriptive Designs
- study designs in which the researcher defines a problem and variable of interest, but makes no prediction and doesn't control or manipulate anything
Case study
psychologist observes one person over a long period of time
Correlational Studies
studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another
Correlational Coefficient

(2 points)
- a numerical representation of the relationship between two variables

- ranges from -1.00 to +1.00
random assignment
each participant in the study has the same chance of being in either the experimental or control group
experimental group
participants who will recieve the treatment being studied
tools or techniques used to assess thought and/or behavoir
Self-report Measure

(3 points)
- written/oral accounts of one's thoughts, feelings or actions

- Interviews
- Questionaires
Behavoiral Measure

(2 points)
-based on systematic observations of people's actions

- reduced bias from social desireability and demand characteristics

ex) watching people in a mall
Physiological Measure
measures bodily response used to determine changes in psychological state
collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of numerical data
Standard Deviation

(2 points)
- measure of how much scores in a data set vary around the mean

- most common way to represent variability in data
Quasai-Experimental Method
- method similar to and experimental design concept, but it uses naturally ocurring groups instead of randomization
polygenetic transmission
when many genes interact to create a single characteristic
study of the changes in the way genes are turned on or off without a change in DNA sequence
Two ways to remove excess neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft
1) Reuptake
2) Enzymatic Degradation
graded potentials

- small changes in membrane potential that by themselves are insufficient to trigger an action potential

ex) Inhibitory Neurotransmitters

(3 points)
- involved in voluntarily controlling your muscles

- plays an important role in mood

- OVERsupply: Schizophrenia

(3 points)
- has wide ranging effects

- involved in controlling emotional states

- UNDERsupply: Anxiety, Depression

(4 points)
- MAJOR inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain

- slows CNS activity

- regulates/controls neural activity

- correlates with anxiety and intoxication
Responsible for speach PRODUCTION
Broca's Area
Responsible for speech COMPREHENSION
Wernicke's Area
Joeseph Altman
discovered neurogenesis in several areas of cat brains
Two things an experiment in a specific study ALWAYS has
1) Random Assignment
2) Controlled Conditions
Experimenter Expectancy Effect

(2 points)
- result that occurs when the behavoir of the participants is influenced by the experimenters' knowledge

- Robert Rosenthal
Behavorial Neuroscience

(2 points)
- study of the links among brain, mind and behavoir

- fastest developing area of Psychology
Descriptive Statistics
- measures used to describe, summarize and organize data collected
number that describes the population
Demand Characteristics
acting in a certain way, according to the study
Inferential Statistics
helps determine the liklihood of a given finding was the result of chance
Naturalistic Observation
researcher unobtrusivel observes behavoir in the real world
William James

(2 points)
- considered the founder of American psychology

- Taught G. Stanley Hall
Synaptic Vessels
tiny sacs in the terminal buttons of dendrites that contain neurotransmitters
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum where much of human thought, planning, perception and consciousness take place
Industrial Psychology

(2 points)
- involves matching employees to their job

- uses psychological principles and methods to select emplyoees and evaluate job performance
effect sizes
measure of the strength of the relation between two variables, or that of the extent of an experimental effect
Monogenic Transmission
when one gene passes on a train
Organizational Psychology

(2 points)
- aims to make workers more productive

- considers how th ework enviroment and management infliuence worker motivation, satisfaction, productivity
G. Stanley Hall

(2 points)
- founded the APA

- opened the first psychological lab in USA
looking into one's own mind to determine the structure of conciousness
Normal Distribution

(2 points)
- perfectly symmetrical "bell curve" in which scores cluster around the middle

- few scores at the "extremes"
what is the nature of knowledge

(2 points)
- quantitative method for combining all public research results on one question and drawing a conclusion

- uses effect sizes
Philosophy of Empiricism

(4 points)
- view that all knowledge and thoughts come from experience

- 17th century

- John Locke

- tabula rasa: "clean slate"

(3 points)
- states that memory isn't an objective and accurate representation of events

- the way we think about things organizes how we experience the world

- founded by Frederick Bartlett
Self-fufilling Prophecy
statement that affects events to cause the prediction to come true