Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/172

Click to flip

172 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychology is the science of...
behavior and mental processes
This theoretical perspective studies the structures of the mind
Structuralism
This theoretical perspective studies the purposes and functions of the mind
Functionalism
Introspection derives from what psycological school of thought?
Structuralism
The process of reporting one's own conscious mental experiences.
Introspection--derived from structuralism
This theoretical perspective focuses on perception and perceptual learning--interested in "perceptual wholes"
Gestalt psychology
Theoretical perspective that focuses on behavior and excludes mental processes
Behaviorism
This man was a leader of the behavioral movement
John B. Watson
This approach focuses on unconscious thought and the conflict between internal drives, society, and early childhood experiences.
Psychodynamic approach
This approach focuses on the brain and the nervous system--neuroscience
Biological approach
This approach focuses on positive human qualities, free will, and self-actualization
Humanistic Approach
Rodgers and Maslow and Karen Horni support what psychological approach?
Humanistic approach
Freud, Erikson, and Adler supported this psychlogical approach
Psychodynamic approach
This approach focuses on the importance of mental processes to problem solving,learning, and memory
Cognitive Approach
This approach focuses on changes in response to ancestral environments
Evolutionary Approach
Buss, Cosmides,and Tooby support what psychological approach?
Evolutionary approach
Watson and Skinner support what psychological approach?
Behavioral Approach
This approach focuses on how social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processes.--For instance, this approach studies ethnic and cultural groups within a country...
Sociocultural Approach
Wilhelm Wundt supported what psychological approach?
structuralism
William James supported what psychological approach
Functionalism
Who highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits?
Charles Darwin
The beginning of psychology as a science began in what discipline?
philosophy
cause and effect is emphasized in the psychological approach advocated by William James. What approach is this?
functionalism
Psychologists labeled structuralists are interested in the______of the mind and use _________as their primary research method.
structure, introspection
True or False--Of clinical psychologists, organizational/industrial psychologists, developmental psychologists, and psychiatrists, psychiatrists are most likely to have a medical degree
TRUE
Who gave the name of structuralism to the early psychological approach that identifies the structures of the human mind?
E.B. Titchener
Wilhelm Wundt is to __________as William James is to ______________________
structuralism, functionalism
psychologists use scientific methods to study ______________
behavior and mental processes
____________'s like John B. Watson believe that only visible behavior can be measured and understood.
behaviorists
Behavior is ________. Mental processes are ___________.
observable, private
A psychologist that helps a patient talk about feelings and consider relationships is probably what type of psychologist?
clinical psychologist
A psychologist that that designs tests and methodologies for dating tests would probably be this type of psychologist?
cognitive psychologist
This psychological perspective says that people can make healthy choices that affect their thought and behaviors...
humanistic perspective
Watson and Skinner believe that psychology should focus on interactions with the environment that can be seen and measured. This is in accordance with the ______perspective
behavioral
The study of higher mental processes is_________ psychology.
cognitive
Which part of the neuron acts on the next cell?
axon
The nucleus of a neuron is located in the...
cell body, also called the soma
The primary function of dendrites is to...
receive incoming information
This part of a neuron looks like a tree with small "branches" that extend from the neuron cell body and spread like mini tree roots. The name of this part of the neuron comes for the Greek word for tree
dendrites
What is the correct route a message takes within a neuron?
dendrite, cell body, axon
When a neuron is at it's resting state there is a ___________charge on the inside of the cell membrane and a _____________charge on the outside
negative, positive
The physical junction between two neurons is called?
the synapse
the terms spinal cord, somatic nerves, and parasympathetic division are best associated with _________nervous system
peripheral
The central nervous system is made up of the...
brain and spinal cord
________ neurons carry electrochemical messages TO the brain
afferent
_______nerves send messages from the brain to the rest of your body
efferent
This division of the nervous system is composed of all of the nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
___________ nervous system controls essential body functions like heartbeat, breathing, digestion, sweating, and sexual arousal.
autonomic
The two integrated parts of the autonomic nervous system are...
the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
the _________nervous system causes salivation, constriction of the lungs and bladder and activation of the digestive tract during stress
the sympathetic
The Peripheral nervous system includes the _________ and ___________ nervous systems
autonomic, somatic
The somatic nervous system carries sensory information to the central nervous system and _____________
sends voluntary messages to the body's skeletal muscles.
A backpacker being chased by a bear would benefit most from which nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
Meditation techniques help lessen tension and slow heart rate and breathing because these exercises increase the response of which nervous system?
parasympathetic nervous system
arouses the cortex to keep the brain alert
reticular formation
Area of the hindbrain and brain stem structure that helps a person breathe and stand upright...
medulla
Damage to the __________ causes problems in balance and muscle coordination
cerebellum
one of the pleasure centers of the brain is the _________
hypothalamus
The ___________ plays a key role in fear and aggression
amygdala
the _____________ plays a key role in memory
hippocampus
the ____________ is primarily responsible for stereotyped patterns such as walking, sleeping, or turning to attend to a sudden noise
reticular formation
The ____________ mediates conscious experience and voluntary actions
cerebral cortex
Broca's area is located in the __________ hemisphere
left
Anger and emotions are affected by the __________ hemisphere of the brain
right
Broca's area controls the production of _____________
speech
Wernicke's area is locatedr headyou in the _________ lobe
temporal
if you see stars or flashes of light after hitting your head, this lobe was stimulated
occipital lobe
This lobe processes visual information
occipital lobe
What is Wernicke's aphasia?
when people speak normally but cannot make sense out of language
the somatosensory area of the brain plays an important role in behaviors involving
touch
This part of the brain processes information about body sensations
somatosensory cortex
The two halves of the cerebral cortex are called cerebral ________________
hemispheres
The large bundle of axons that connect the two halves of the brain is called the
corpus callosum
split-brain patients can only use verbal expression about information processed in which hemisphere of the brain?
left
most neurons send information to where?
other neurons
The part of the brain that regulates sleep and arousal is?
the pons
This is the relay station where all brain messages go through
Thalamus
The __________ monitors blood to determine the condition of the body
hypothalamus
Part of the brain that establishes long term memory--eating, drinking, sex
hippocampus
____________lobe controls movement and thinking--intelligence and personality
frontal
_______cortex is in the _________ lobe and controls voluntary movement
motor, frontal
_____________cortex controls positive emotions on the left and negative emotions on the right. also helps in mindfulness, awareness, and meditation
prefrontal
The somatosensory cortex is in the _________lobe
parietal
_______________lobe processes touch sensations and helps perceive spatial relationships
parietal
_________ lobes process sounds including speech
temporal
The ____________ system is the middle layer of the brain and includes the hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and other structures
limbic
The ____________ division of the autonomic nervous system increases the heart rate during an emergency, while the _________ division slows the heart rate after an emergency is over
sympathetic, parasympathetic
What might carry a neural impulse across a synapse?
dopamine
Part of the brain that communicates directly with the "master gland" of the endocrine system?
hypothalamus
The chemical messengers in the brain are called __________while in the endocrine system they're called _______________
neurotransmitters, hormones
A drug or chemical that enhances the effects of neurotransmitters--serotonin
Agonist
Drug or chemical that inhibits the effects of a neurotransmitter
Antagonist
Chemical messengers that relay neural messages across the synapse are called
neurotransmitters--
ex: dopamine
The extended fiber that conducts information from the soma or cell body to the terminal buttons is called the
axon
Information travels along the axon in the form of an electrical charge called the
action potential
Bundles of many neurons are called _____________
nerves
A cell specialized to receive and transmit information to other cells in the body is a
neuron
afferent neurons which carry messages toward the CNS (brain) are also called
sensory neurons
efferent neurons which carry messages away from the CNS (brain) to muscles and glands are also called
motor neurons
A nerve cell that relays messages in between nerve cells, especially in the brain and spinal cord (CNS)
interneuron
messages enter through the _______ arousing the _________ or cell body, then passing through the __________then it is transmitted by means of action potential to the cell's ______________. Here _____________rupture and release the contents into the _________ where they eventually dock at __________
dendrites, soma, axon, terminal buttons, neurotransmitters, synapse, receptors
Action potential either occurs full-blown or not at all this is called the ______ _______ ___________ principle
All or nothing
when a neuron is "ready to fire" it is in __________ potential
resting
when a neuron fires travels down the axon and causes neurotransmitters to be released by the terminal buttons the neuron is in _________ potential
action
In a ________ arc messages go from the afferent nerve to an interneuron to an efferent nerve
reflex
The neurotransmitter responsible for muscle actions, learning, and memory low levels linked to Alzheimers--high levels linked to nicotine--also regulates sleep
Acetylcholine (ACH)
This neurotransmitter is responsible for inhibitory functions. Low levels of it cause anxiety
GABA
This neurotransmitter causes stress and mania when levels are too high and depression when levels are too low--This neurotransmitter along with ACH regulates sleep
Norephinephrine
This neurotransmitter regulates sleep mood, attention, and learning--low levels of this neurotransmitter can cause depression--the drug Prozac can raise levels.
serotonin
These natural opiates mediate feelings of pleasure and pain
endorphins
This is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter--responsible for onset of lactation in new moms and attachment and emotional bond.
Oxytocine
This neurotransmitter produces sensations of pleasure and reward Imbalance is attributed to schizophrenia and Parkinson's Disease
Dopamine
The three main layers of the human brain are the...
brain stem and cerebellum, the lymbic system, and the cerebrum
A brain tumor in the limbic system is most likely to produce changes in a person's ____________
emotions
In the split-brain operation which part of the brain is severed
the corpus callosum
Structuralism uses the technique of ________________ to study consciousness
introspection
___________ was an early psychologist who dismissed introspection as too subjective to be scientifically useful
John B. Watson
Freud suggested that the clothes you wore yesterday and the capital of Chile is most likely to reside in your ___________________
preconscious mind
According to Freud, if you became aware of your conscious thoughts whatwould happen?
it would cause you extreme anxiety.
__________________ psychologists believe that the unconscious is primarily responsible for sorting, monitoring, discarding, and storing the constant stream of sights, sounds, sounds, smells, and textures, we encounter daily.
Cognitive
"Jet lag" is primarily a result of upset what?
circadian rhythms
Deprivation of _______ sleep results in irritability during the next day
REM
The ancient ________soul left the body during dreams and wandered around the world
Chinese
This culture interprets dreams as messages from God
ancient Isrealites
Sleep apnea is dangerous for adults because...
it elevates blood pressure which stresses the heart
Occurences of daytime sleep attacks are a symptom of what disease
narcolepsy
The _________ effect of hypnosis is not mediated by the release of endorphins in the brain
analgesic
Cocaine heroin and amphetamines stimulate the brain's reward system. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
The ability of a drug to act as a hallucinogen involves an interaction with _________ neurons.
serotonin
THC has the capacity to release __________
dopamine
Morphine and Codeine exert analgesic properties that resemble those of the body's ______________
endorphins
Stimulants can effectively treat what sleep disorder?
narcolepsy
The notion that development occurs in stages endorses what view?
discontinuity
The psychology that is concerned with how organisms change over time is called...
developmental psychology
This controversy is primarily concerned with the relative importance of heredity and environment
Nature Vs. Nurture
The despair of a person who is in Erikson's final psychosocial crisis is most likely caused by ...
their incomplete resolution of earlier developmental crises
Erikson believed that an individual must meet the challenges of ___________ and _____________ before they can move into the period of generativity.
identity, intimacy
A person who is lonely and can't form meaningful connections with others did not successfully resolve the ____________ vs. _____________ crisis.
intimacy, isolation
Kohlberg defined intimacy as...
the capacity to make a full committment to another person
______________ argued that women base moral decisions on social relationships and personal caring
Gilligan
The fact that moral reasoning does not predict actual behavior is a serious flaw in whose theory of moral development?
Kohlberg
A child who refuses to steal candy because of a fear of getting caught is most likely demonstrating ______________ morality
preconventional
Homosexual feelings are difficult to resolve during adolescence because...
adolescents are especially concerned with social norms and society offers little support for individuals of homosexual orientation
Erikson's developmental theory fails to capture ____________ development as well as it captures male development
female
Inadequate resolution of this stage results in a lack of self-confidence and a feeling of failure
competence vs. inferiority
Authoritative parents produce children that are ...
confident and self-reliant
This is a person's usual way of responding to the world
temperment
Developing a theory of mind helps a child establish successful _________________ and ___________________
social interactions, relationships
Donna is so focused on the idea of having a big bowl of ice cream that she refuses to eat it off of a plate even though the plate actually has more ice cream--her refusal is an example of...
centration
A child who has not mastered ______________ believes that when something is hidden it no longer exists
object permenance
The correct sequence of Piaget's stages of development ...
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
In the process of _____________ new information fits our earier scheme
assimilation
In the process of __________ our scheme changes to fit new information
accomodation
Brain processes of which we are aware occur in our ___________ mind
conscious
Brain processes like heart rate, breathing, and control of internal organs that do not involve conscious processing occur in the
nonconscious mind
Consciousness can take _____________ forms, while other mental processes occur simultaneously outside our awareness
many
What are the three functions of consciousness
1. restricts our attention
2. combines sensation with learning and memory
3. allows us to create a mental model of the world that we can manipulate.
Shifting our own thoughts, feelings, and beliefs onto others usually unconsciouly is called
projection
Many levels of processing that occur without awareness
unconscious
Functions of sleep
1. To conserve energy
2. restore body
3. flush out useless info. from brain
The deficiency caused by not getting then amount of sleep one needs for optimal functioning is called
sleep debt
What 2 functions did Freud say dreams have?
1. guard sleep
2. sources of wish fulfillment
TRUE/FALSE Dream content varies by culture, gender, and age
TRUE
_____________ _____________ theory says that dreams begin with random electrical activation coming from brain stem --a dream is then the brain's attempt to make sense of this random activity
Activation-Synthesis
Sudden loss of muscle control that occurs before a narcoleptic sleep attack
cataplexy
An ________________ ______________________ of _____________________ occurs when some aspect of normal consciousness is modified by mental, behavioral, or chemical means.
altered state of consciousness
Three states of altered consciousness:
hypnosis
meditation
psychoactive drug states
Chemicals that affect mental processes are called:
psychoactive drugs
Four catagories of psychoactive drugs
hallucinogens
opiates
depressants
stimulants
Mesculine, PCP, Cannibis alter perceptions of the external environment and inner awareness so they are
hallucinogens
Barbituates, benzodiazepines like Valium, and alcohol slow down mental and physical activity by inhibiting transmission of nerve impulses in the CNS, therefore they are classified as
depressants
Drugs that arouse the CNS and speed up mental and physical responses are called stimulants. Some examples include:
cocaine, amphetamines, methanphetamine, MDMA (ecstacy), caffeine, and nicotine