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251 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is psychology
human mind and behaviors, scientific study of our emotions, what we do
lawful relationships among events, order is important to our progress
every event has a physical, potentially measureable cause
doubts all claims not supported by solid research evidence
evaluate info as carefully as possible
free of bias
open mindedness
willingness to change
what are the 4 basic goals of scientific research?
1. Description 2. Prediction 3. Control 4. Explanation
citing of absercable characteristics ( systematic, only cite relevant data)
hypothesis and theories about human behavior; more accurate in regard to people in general than to a specific person
manipulating factors that affect thought and behavior
Causes; reasons why; all time goal of psychology
concrete descriptions/measuremtn (use of numbers, numbers make it easier to do)
Alien - limb
people believe certain body parts dont belong to their body
operational definitions
definitions interms of the procedures used to measure or produce; example: blood alcohol content of .08 or above
testable prediction about relationship between 2 or more ; the more parents interact the better kids do
statement that summarize/explains research findings and from which hypthesis are derived; ex: how parents affect how kids achieve
experimental control
in research, controlling as many factors as possible to research
everyday control
application of research finding to control of behavior
what is the difference between experimental and everyday control?
applying finding of research to everyday
Scientific Method
a series of steps we undertake to answer questions to come up with a plausable explanation
review relevant literature; 1. identify area
2. Review past research:finding out how things have been done in the past
review past research:
a.? b? c? d?
a. operational definitions
b. aviod needless replication
c. put research into broader context
d. expose to other theories
What are the steps of the Scientific Method?
1. rationale 2. develope hypothesis 3. design study and collect data 4. analyze data 5. publish replicate
6. build theory
analyzing data consists of ___________
1. reduce to where you can spread data out
2. statistics
discuss implications of research findings ( descriptive and informitable statistics)
Descriptive statistics
summarize data, mean, variablilty ( how to spread out data points)
Informitable statistics
compare groups
replicate study
done to make sure facts are true, done with systematice variation of relevant variables; get deeper into the experiment
descriptive research
systematic observations; NO CAUSATION OR PREDICTION
Naturalistic observation
participants are studied in their natural environment; people cant know their being observed; Hawthorne effect
Ethnographic research
cross cultural; researcher spends alot of time with subject, usually living with them
Archival research
look at historical trend; use the past
case studies
usually 1 person or possible small group
Correlation research
used when a researcher wants to predict one variable from another; cannot introduce variable for ethical and logistical reasons
correlation coefficient
degree of relationship because two or more variables
Positive correlation coefficient
2 variables change in same direction; one increases so does the other and vice versa
Negative correlation coefficient
the variables change in opposite ways one goes up the other goes down
zero to absolute 1.00; zero absolute no correlation; 1 is perfect correlation
experimental research
casual relationship between two variables
representative sample
accurately reflects characteristics of population
random sample
each participant in population is equally likely to be chosen
convenience samples
whoever is on hand
independent variable
IV, manipulated by experimenter
dependent variable
DV, shows any effects of IV
experimental groups
exposed to independent varibale
control group
not exposed to independent variable
extraneous variable
AKA confounding variable - anything other than IV that causes changes in DV
experimental bias
accidentally signal to participant how they are expected to respond
double blind design
neither the individuals nor the researchers know who belongs to the control group and the experimental group
same stimulus may mean very different things to people in different culture
participant expectancy effects
when the participant reacts based on what they think the experiment should be like instaed of how they actually feel
participant bias
AKA social desirability response, everyone wants to present themselves in a positve way but may be lying to you
damaged areas of brain
What biological research happened in the mid 1800's?
discovered the way to find what different parts of the brain does is to damage that part of the brain
What are the two ethical considerations?>
informed consent and voluntary consent
tell real reason for experiment when finished
functions of behavior in enabling people/animals to adapt to environment
natural selection
environment "selectS" those who possess some characteristic that contributes to survival
survival of the fittest
adaptive "survive" in sense of successfully passing on genes
We inherit _____ NOT specific behaviors!
____ is head of the functionalism movement
William James
Sigmund Freud; humans are motivated mainly by violent sexual drives.
theoretical behaviorism
environment is primary determinant of thought and behavior
methodologial behaviorism
subject matter of psychology should be restricted exclusively to environmental inputs and obersvable responses
Gestalt psychology
can't study perception by breaking it down into its structural parts - had to look at experience as a whole
we often experience things that are not a part of our simple sensations; discovered phi phenomenon
phi phenomenon
an optical illusion in which stationary objects shown in rapid succession, transcending the threshold at which they can be perceived separately, appear to move
Who was phineas gage?
1st patient to show relation between personality and frontal lobes. Sept 13, 1848 a tamping rod was shot through his skull. He stayed conscious. Before he was capable worker and nice person. After he was rude profane irritable. fairly typical for someone with damage to frontal lobes
how biological processes relate to behaviors and mental processes
the central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
nerves that connect brain and spinal cord
Two parts of the peripheral system ?
somatic and autonomic
somatic nervous system
transmits info about body movements/ external environment; VOLUNTARY
autonomic nervous system
transmits information to and from internal organs/glands
Two parts of the autonomic nervous system?
sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
get body ready for action and output of energy; ACCELERATOR
parasympathetic nervous system
slows body down, conserving energy; BRAKES
AKA nerve cells- communicate information in brain and throughout body
cell body
soma; contains nucleus- helps neuron carry out its functions
branch like extensions of cell body - receive information from other cells
long extension from cell body that conveys information towards other neurons or muscles and glands
myelin sheath
white fatty coating, insulates and increases speed of transmissions
terminal buttons
send signals from a neuron to adjacent cells
connections between neurons
synaptic cleft
space between two neurons
glial cells
support and nourish neurons
presynaptic neuron
neuron SENDING an impulse
postsynaptic neuron
neuron RECEIVING the impulse
chemical produced and released by neurons that cause changes in other neurons
protein molecule in the postsynaptic neuron
cerebral cortex
outer surface of two cerebral hemispheres that regulates most complex behaviors
folds of the cerebral cortex
primary somatosensory cortex
receives sensory messages from entire body
primary motor cortex
sends messages from brain to various muscles and glands of body
what are the lobes of the brain?
occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal, lateral prefrontal cortex
receives and processes visual information
complex visual tasks; information from ear; balance; emotions and motivations; language
sensory information from all over the body; oversees spatial abilities
receives and coordinates messages from the other three lobes. previous and future body movements; judgement/ personality
lateral prefrontal cortex
problem solving and seeing consequences of your actions
behavioral genetics
explores the impact of genetics and environmental factors on different in the behaviors, biological, and psychological processes of groups. NOT INDIVIDUALS!
What are the 3 methods of studying behavioral genetics?
Twin, Adoption, and family
concordance rates
agreement between twins on a characteristic
adoption studies
focus on children who were adopted at birth and brought up by parents not genetically related to them
family studies
if genes influence a trait close relatives should share that trait more often than distant relatives because close relatives have more genes incommon
health psychology
relationship between psychological behavior and physcial health and illness
how body responds to any number of physcial or emotional stimuli
pleasant or curative stress
unpleseant or disease producing stress
What are the sources of stress?
1. life changes 2. chronic stressors 3. hassels and burnout 4. frustration 5. conflicts
life changes
adjustment can cause stress
chronic stressors
ongoing, continuous pressures, when urge to fight or flight has been suppressed
minor irritating incidents that occur everyday (weather traffic)
physical emotional and mental exhaustion attributable to long term involvment in emotionally demanding situations ( fatigue, loss of idealism/energy, emotional numbness, etc)
unpleasant tension, anxiety, and heightened sympathetic resulting from a blocked goal
five types of frustration - Morris
delays, lack of resources, losses, failure, discrimination
having to choose between two or more incompatible goals or impulses
what are the 3 types of conflicts?
approach, aviodance, and approach/avoidance
approach conflict
occurs when a person has to choose between two equally pleasureable alternatives
results when neither choice is pleasureable
approach aviodance
when a person has to make a chioce that is both positive and negative
general adaptation syndrome
(Hans Selye)- body responds to stressful conditions with a general adaptation syndrome
alarm reaction
immediate reaction to a stressor
stage of resistance
body adapts to continual stressors
stage of exhuastion
body's resistance to stress may be gradually reduced or may collapse quickly
personality type A
impatient, hard driving, ambitious, competitive, and hostile (related to heart disease)
personality type B
more relaxed, easy-going, and less easily angered
Suzanne Kobasa- people who tolerate stress exceptionally well or seem to thrive on it
what are the characteristics of hardiness
open to change/ internall motivated/ deeply commited to work/ meaningful activity/ challenge / control
ability to "bounce back" from stressors
post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
once called shell shock of battle fatigue syndrome
What are the symptoms of PTSD
intrusion, avoidance, and hyper arousal
memories of truma reoccur unexpectedly "flash backs"
person often avoids close emotional ties with family colleagues and friends; reminders of event; survivor's guilt
hyper arousal
PTSD can cause those who have it to act as they are constantly threatened by truama that caused their illness
problem focused coping
taking steps to change source of stress
emotional focuesd coping
efforts to change ones emotional response to stressor (denial)
why do people start smoking in the first place?
we start young, when were stupid and want to impress our friends and peers, (own personal sense of uniqueness). Once you begin smoking you quickly become addicted. The addictiveness of nicotine is comparable to herion and cocaine.
Binge Drinking
consuming 5 or more drinks in a row for boys and 4 or more for girls
a posion- you have to pace it in order to give the body time to process
receiveing, converting, and tranmitting information from outside world
selecting, organizing, and interpreting raw sensory data into useful mental representations of world
what happens through sensations?
energy stimulates a receptor cell in a sense organ, the receptor cell sends a signal along sensory nerces to the appropriate area of the cerebral crotex
receptor cell
specialized cell that responds to a particular type of energy
how does the brain distinguish between different types of stimuli?
sensory messages enter brain on different channels; receptor cells are specialized to respond to only one form of energy
absolute threshold
minimum intesity of physical energy required to produce any sensation( how loud a sound needs to be to hear it)
sensory adaptation
adjustment of senses to level of stimulation they are receving
difference threshold
AKA just noticable difference- smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time
for both absolute and difference threshold to happen there must be
ideal conditions
lining of eye that contains receptor cells that are sensitive to light
receptor cells in retina responsible for night vision and perception of brightness
receptor ceells in retina responsible for color viosion
the area of retina that is center of visual field
visual adaptation
sensitivty of rods and cones changes accoriding to how much light is availble
dark adaptation
rods and cones become more sensitve to light in response to lowered levels of ilumination
light adaptation
rods and cones become less sensitve to light in response to increased levels of illuminations
psychological experience created by brain in response to changes in air pressure that are received by auditory system
sound waves
changes in pressure caused when molecules of air of fluid collide with one another and then move apart again
number of cycles persecond in wave; in sound; primary determinant of pitch
auditory experience corresponding primarily to frequency of sound vibrations; resulting in higher or lower tones
magnitude of a wave, primary determinatn of loudness
mixture of sound waves; helps differentiate one voice from another
hearing undergoes _____ so that it can function optimally under a wide variety of conditions
outer ear
gathers, delivers sound to middle ear
middle ear
amplifies, concentrates sound
inner ear
receptor cells
conduction deafness
middle ear deafness; more common
nerve deafness
inner ear deafness
olfactory epithelium
mucus membrane containing smell receptors
to understand taste must be able to distinguish it from flavor; FLAVOR- a combo of taste and aroma
____ is a combo of taste and smell
What are the newly discovered tastes?
1. astringent 2. umami(delicious) responsible for tasting glutamates 3. ? our response to dietary fats( why we enjoy bacon cheese burgers)
cross adaptation
exposure to one taste can modify another taste
kinesthetic senses
muscle movement, posture, and strain on muscles and joints
vestibular senses
equilibrium and body position in space (oreintation in space)
perceptual organization
pertains to all senses; helps distinush whats what
entity that stands apart from the background
background against which a figure appears
gestalt psychologists
perception is more than the sum of its parts - perception is predictable
perceptual constancy
tendency to perceive objects as relatively stable unchanging despite changing in sensory information
size constancy
perception of object as same size regardless of distance from which it is viewed
shape constancy
see an object as the same shape no matter what angle it is viewed from
color constancy
perceive familiar objects as retaining their color despite changes in sensory information
monocular cues
visual cues requiring the use of one eye
aerial perspective
distant objects have a hazy apperance and a somewhat blurred outline
testure gradient
close object seems to have a rough or detailed texture
linear perspective
two parallel lines that extend into distance appear to come together at some point on horizon
binocular cues
visual cues requiring both eyes
stereoscopic vision
combination of 2 retinal images to give a 3 dimensional experience
retinal disparity
difference between images cast on two retinas when both eyes are focused on smae object
muscles controlling eye movement as eyes turn inward to view a nearby stimulus
monaural cue
requires just one ear; how close or how far away the sound is
binaural cue
involves both ears
sounds reach one ear slighty ahead of the other... how?
time difference between sound waves reaching ears registers in the brain; helps us judge location
subliminal perception
certain events occur outside our conscious awareness
scientific studies
hidden messages outside lab have no significant effect on behavior
motivational tapes
improve memory and self esteem
extrasensory perception or ESP
response to an unknown event or presented to any known sense
awareness of an unknown object of event
knowledge of someone else's thoughts or feelings
knowning what will happen before it happens; foreknowledge of the future
describe only relevant items
everyone hwo could be involved in your research
only a subset of the population will be used because you cannot use the entire population
sometimes participants may lie to you, or they may help and do what you think they want you to do
use of deception
keeping resultprivate
student s should never feel pressure in doing the exp. or feeling as though they have to finish
students as research participants
established the fist psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879
William Wundt
Wundt's defined psychology as what?
the study of the structure of conscious experience
participants exposed to different types of stimuli, then reported sensations and feelings associated with that stimuli
When do psychological problems result?
when we try to fit unaacceptabke behaviors in acceptable behaviors
problems with Freud
came up with a universal theory of childhood development but never treated a child
important to distinguish between theoretical and methodological aspects
Cerebral Cortex is more highly developed in who, than in any other animal?
2 divisions of cerebral cortex
1. interhemispheric fissure
2. central sulcus
shwann cells
individual fatty globules
nodes of ranvier
unmylated sections
one fertilized egg that has split: IDENTICAL TWINS
two ferilized eggs that have split: FRATERNAL TWINS
if children resemble their biological parents on specific traits
if childen resemble their adoptive parents on a specific traits
volunteers in free clinic movement
Herbert Freudenberger
fight or flight response; idea when confronted with something that demands immediate attention who can confront it or run from it
Walter Cannon (1932)
optimistic patients recover more quickly
Coronary Bypass Surgery
Pessimists more likely to be ill/dead by?
45-50 year range
emotion focused coping only helps with what?
short term relief
what are the 6 effects of smoking?
1. Coronary Heart Disease
2. Cancers of all Types- lung, mouth, throat, etc.
3. Chronic Bronchiti
4. Emphysema
5. Ulcers
6. Social Embarrassment- bad breath, stinky, clothes, etc.
nonsmoking laws keep people from what?
what are the 11 symptoms to smoking cessation?
• Withdrawal symptoms
• Craving to smoke
• Irritable, cranky
• Insomnia
• Fatigue
• Inability to Concentrate
• Headache
• Cough
• Sore throat
• Constipation, gas, stomach pain
• Dry mouth
what are the 5 D's of coping with symptoms?
Delay/Distract/Drink/Deep Breaths/Discuss
what are other ways to manage nicotine withdrawl?
exercise/get rest/ relax/ reward yourself
What was the name, what was the age, and when did he die? (the frat boy from lsu)
Benjamin Wynne, a 20 –year old, LSU student, died August 27, 1997.
the absolute threshold for all of our senses is remarkably what?
1 gram of table salt in 500 liters of water
1 drop of perfume diffused throughout a 6 room apartment
wing of a bee falling on cheek from height of 1 centimeter
tick of a watch from 20 feet in very quiet conditions
a candle flame from 30 miles on a clear, dark night
Varies according to strength/ intensity of original stimulus
difference threshold
Difference thresholds tell us something about the what of sensory systems?
aging and hearing ; unit of measurement per sound
our auditory system is so what? (2)
subtle and complicated
Brief exposures over --- decibels can cause permanent damage, as can daily exposure to -- decibels
150; 85
Of all our senses, smell is the most what? (2)
primitive and evocative
We can detect over how many separate smells?
We rarely perceive odors as what?
10,000/ neutral
The ability to judge distance and depth is critically important if an organism is to what?
move freely in its environment
the image of the world on the retina is essentially what?
flat – it’s two-dimensional
The idea of absolute thresholds implies that certain events in the outside world occur outside our what?
conscious awareness
Several lab studies indicate that in a controlled laboratory setting, people can process and respond to information of which they are what?
not consciously aware of
Research criticized for poor experimental design, failure to control for dishonesty, selective reporting of results, or in ability to replicate findings.