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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the concept of personality is used to explain:
the stability of a person's behavior over time and across situations (consistency) and the behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness)
an individual's unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits
personality trait
a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
factor analysis
correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables
five factor model of personality traits
openness to experience
conscientiousness (constraint)
extraversion (positve emotionality)
neuroticism (negative emotionality)
criticism of the big 5 model
merely descriptive, doesn't give reasons why personalities turn out the way they do
too general/arbitrary, not enough room for human variation
4 different personality theory groups
psychodymnamic perspectives, behavioral perspectives, humanistic, and biological
psychodynamic theories
include all the diverse theories descended from the work of SIgmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces
psychoanalytic theory
attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focusing on the influence of early child hood experiences, on unconcious motives and conflicts, and on the methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges
the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle (COOKIE!!)
pleasure principle
which demands immediate gratification of its urges
decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principe
reality principle
seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong
defense mechanism
largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior
keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another
diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a subsitute target
reaction formation
is behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings
reversion to immature patterns of behavior
bolstering self-esteem by forming a nimaginary or real alliance with some person or group
failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected
personal unconscious
houses material that is not within one's conscious awareness because it has been represses or forgotten
collective unconscious
storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past
emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
analytical psychology, like Freud but thought the unconscious had a personal and collective part
individual psychology: striving for superiority not sexual tensions creates motivations
involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities
theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
behaviorist who disagreed with Skinner's pure behaviorism. advocated reciprocal determinism
reciprocal determinism
the idea that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another
refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes
criticism of behavioral perspectives
overdependence on animal research
dehumanizing nature of radical behaviorism
fragmentation of personality
phenomenological approach
which asssumes that one has to appreciate individuals' personal, subjective experienceds to truly understand their behavior
collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
the degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience
hierarchy of needs
maslow--a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
need for self-actualization
the need to fulfill one's potential; it is the highest need in maslow's moitivational hierarchy
self-actualizing persons
people with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personal growth
criticisms of humanistic model
poor testability
unrealistic view of human nature
inadequate evidence
eysenck's theory
3 trait: extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism
sensation seeking
generalized preference for high or low levels of sensory stimulation
refers to the degree to which people attend to and control the impression they make on others in social interactions