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27 Cards in this Set

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preoperational intelligence
Piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6; it includes language and imagination (which involves symbolic thought), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible
A characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child focuses on one idea, excluding all others
Piaget's term for children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective
focus on appearance
A characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent
static reasoning
A characteristic of preoperational thinking in which a young child thinks that nothing changes. Whatever is now has always been and always will be
A characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child thinks that nothing can be undone. A thing cannot be restored to the way it was before a change occurred.
The principle that the amount of a substance remains the same even when its appearance changes
The belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive
guided participation
The process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky's term for the skills - cognitive as well as physical - that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently
Temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process
private speech
The internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves (either silently or out loud)
social mediation
Human interaction that expands and advances understanding, often through words that one person uses to explain something to another
The idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories
theory of mind
A person's theory of what other people might be thinking. In order to have a [...], children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are. That realization is seldom possible before age 4.
the speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning
The application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur, making the language seem more regular than it actually is
balanced bilingual
A person who is fluent in two languages, not favoring one over the other
Montessori schools
Schools that offer early-childhood education based on the philosophy of Maria [...], which emphasizes careful work and tasks that each young child can do
Reggio Emilia
A famous program of early-childhood education that originated in the town of [...], Italy, and that encourages each child's creativity in a carefully designed setting
procedural memories
memories for doing things, like writing or shoe-tying
declarative memories
memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts and knowledge
semantic memory
type of declarative memory for facts like historical dates, math rules, general data, etc
episodic memory
memory of personal experiences, events

tend not to have these until age 3-3.5 due to childhood amnesia (lack of hippocampus/prefrontal cortex development)
high SES, earlier birth order, girls develop faster
things correlated with better language development
monologues, collective monologues
communication difficulties among preoperational children
temporal concepts
relative location
difficult key concepts in language for preoperational children