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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 Domains of Development
Physical (Biosocial): body changes and motor skills

Cognitive: intellect and thought process

Psychosocial: personality and social development
3 Developmental Processes
Growth, maturation, and learning
increase in size at a biological level
genetic unfolding of pre-programmed patterns of behavior
permanent modification in behavior that results from experience
Normative age-graded influences
"typical events" with a strong relation to chronological age
Normative history-graded influences
how historical events influence development
Age cohort
individuals born at the same time who are influenced by the same events
Non-normative life events
a unique life event experience, not regarded as typical, which severely affects the people who experience it

eg. winning lottery, disability, divorce
Continuity vs Discontinuity
Two opposing theories regarding how we change or stay the same over lifespan

Steady increase/decrease or stage-like?
Scientific method
A way to answer questions using empirical research and data-based conclusions
science of human development
the science that seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time
based on observations, repeated experiences, verifiable experiments; not theoretical
the repetition of a study, using different participants
a general term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception
a general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived
critical period
a time when a particular type of developmental growth (in body or behavior) must happen if it is ever going to happen
sensitive period
a time when a certain type of development is most likely, although it may still happen later.

eg. early childhood is sensitive period for language learning
dynamic-systems theory
a view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment
life-span perspective
an approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood
ecological-systems approach (bioecological theory)
the view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life
elements of the immediate surroundings, such as family and friends, school and religious classes
local institutions such as school system, religious organization, and workplace
larger contexts, including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes
socioeconomic status (SES)
a person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, educaction, and place of residence
ethnic group
people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion
a group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others as distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance
mirror neurons
cells in an observer's brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way they would if the observer had actually performed that action
every individual and trait can be altered at any point in the life span. change is ongoing, although neither random nor easy
Five Characteristics of Development
scientific (or naturalistic) observation
a method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants' behavior in a systematic and objective manner -- in a natural setting, in a laboratory, or in searches of archival data
a research method in which the researcher tried to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between two variables by manipulating one (independent variable) and then observing and recording the ensuing changes in the dependent variable
a research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionnaires, or some other means
cross-sectional research
a research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics
3 types of research to study change over time
longitudinal research
a research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed
cross-sequential research
a hybrid research design in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (cross-sectional approach) and then follow those groups over the years (longitudinal approach)
a number between +1.0 and -1.0 that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables, expressed in terms of the likelihood that one variable will (or will not) occur when the other variable does (or does not). A correlation indicates only that two variables are related, not that one variable causes the other to occur
Institutional Review Board
a group that exists within most educational and medical institutions whose purpose is to ensure that research follows established guidelines and remains ethical