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40 Cards in this Set

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developmental theory
a systematic statement of general principles that provides a coherent framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older
psychoanalytic theory
a grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior
Oral Stage (Freud/psychosexual)
Birth to 1 year
The lips, tongue, and gums are the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby's body, and sucking and feeding are the most stimulating activities
Anal Stage (Freud/psychosexual)
1-3 years
The anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby's body, and toilet training is the most important activity
Phallic Stage (Freud/psychosexual)
3-6 years
The phallus, or penis, is the most important body part, and pleasure is derived from genital stimulation. Boys are proud of their penises; girls wonder why they don't have one
Latency (Freud/psychosexual)
6-11 years
Not really a stage, this is an interlude during which sexual needs are quiet and children put psychic energy into conventional activities like schoolwork and sports
Genital Stage (Freud/psychosexual)
Adolescence throughout adulthood
The genitals are the focus of pleasurable sensations, and the young person seeks sexual stimulation and sexual satisfaction in heterosexual relationships
Trust vs Mistrust (Erikson/psychosocial)
Birth to 1 year
Babies either trust that others will care for their basic needs, including nourishment, warmth, cleanliness, and physical contact, OR develop mistrust about the care of others
Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt
(Erikson/psychosocial)
1-3 years
Children either become self-sufficient in many activities, including toileting, feeding, walking, exploring, and talking, OR doubt their own abilities
Initiative vs Guilt
(Erikson/psychosocial)
3-6 years
Children either want to undertake many adultlike activities OR internalize the limits and prohibitions set by parents. They feel either adventurous or guilty.
Industry vs Inferiority
(Erikson/psychosocial)
6-11 years
Children busily learn to be competent and productive in mastering new skills OR feel inferior, unable to do anything as well as they wish they could
Identity vs Role Confusion
(Erikson/psychosocial)
Adolescence
Adolescents try to figure out "Who am I?" They establish sexual, political, religious, and vocational identities OR are confused about what roles to play
Intimacy vs Isolation
(Erikson/psychosocial)
Early adulthood
Young adults seek companionship and love OR become isolated from others because they fear rejection and disappointment
Generativity vs Stagnation
(Erikson/psychosocial)
Middle adulthood
Adults contribute to the next generation through meaningful work, creative activities, and/or raising a family, OR they stagnate
Integrity vs Despair
(Erikson/psychosocial)
Late adulthood
Older adults try to make sense out of their lives, either seeing life as a meaningful whole OR despairing at goals never reached
Behaviorism/Learning Theory
A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. Describes laws and processes by which behavior is learned.
Conditioning
According to behaviorism, the process by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place. (emphasizes importance of repeated practice)
Classical Conditioning
(Pavlov)
The learning process in which a meaningful stimulus (eg. smell of food to hungry animal) is connected with a neutral stimulus (eg. sound of a tone) that had no special meaning before.
Operant Conditioning
(Skinner)
The learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired (encouraging the action) or something unwanted (discouraging the action)
reinforcement
a technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired, such as food for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person
social learning theory
An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people
modeling
The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them
self-efficacy
In social learning theory, the belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter the social context
cognitive theory
(Piaget)
A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
Sensorimotor Period
(Piaget/cognitive theory)
Birth to 2 years
Infants use senses and motor abilities to understand the world. Learning is active; there is no conceptual or reflective thought.

Major gains: object permanence (object still exists when out of sight)
Preoperational Period
(Piaget/cognitive theory)
2-6 years
Children think magically and poetically, using language to understand the world. Thinking is egocentric, causing children to perceive the world from their own experience.

Major gains: imagination flourishes, language becomes significant means of self-expression and influence
Concrete Operational Period
(Piaget/cognitive theory)
6-11 years
Children understand and apply logical operations, or principles, to interpret experiences objectively and rationally. Their thinking is limited to what they can personally sense or experience.

Major gains: understand concepts of conservation, number, classification, other logical ideas
Formal Operational Period
(Piaget/cognitive theory)
12 years through adulthood
Adolescents and adults think about abstractions and hypothetical concepts and reason analytically, not just emotionally. They can be logical about things they have never experienced

Major gains: ethics, politics, social, moral issues become fascinating
cognitive equilibrium
In cognitive theory, a state of mental balance in which people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas
Assimilation
The reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ideas
Accommodation
The restructuring of old ideas to include new experiences
Information processing
a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output
sociocultural theory
(Vygotsky)
an emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces
apprenticeship in thinking
Vygotsky's term for how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by older and more skilled members of society
zone of proximal development
in sociocultural theory, a metaphorical area surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help
Humanism
a theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background
Needs according to Humanism
1. Physiological
2. Safety/security
3. Love/belonging
4.Respect/esteem
5. Self-actualization
eclectic perspective
the approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory
epigenetic theory
interactions between genes and surrounding environment bring out genetic potential
Five Perspectives on Human Development
1. Psychoanalytic (psychosexual and psychosocial)
2. Behaviorism/Learning Theory
3. Cognitive Theory
4. Sociocultural Theory
5. Universal Perspective