• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is ethical leadership? What are two types of ethical leadership?
-The demonstration and promotion of normatively appropriate conduct
-Perception of ethical leadership --> moral behavior
-Trickles down
- Two types: Direct (social learning theory), Indirect (cultures, climates that affect behavior)
What was theory did Bandura propose? Define it.
Social Learning Theory
-Learning takes place via not ONLY consequence-response but also OBSERVATION of a model
- Ethical leader is followed by an ethical follower
Effective modeling occurs when an observer does what? (4)
-ATTAINS a model's behavior
-RETAIN the behavior
-Possesses the necessarily skill to REPLICATE the behavior
-Possesses the necessary MOTIVATION TO ENGAGE in the behavior
Who is likely to be a model?
Those who are ATTRACTIVE and CREDIBLE.
What is ethical culture?
The multidimensional INTERPLAY BETWEEN an organizations FORMAL and INFORMAL SYSTEMS of CONTROL. (influence outside of the individual)
What are formal systems of control? What are informal systems of control?
Formal: code of ethics, reward system, leadership

Informal: Norms, peer influence
Code of conduct can be ___ &___ or be ___ ____. Must be ___ ____ in order to be sufficient.
-understood & enforced
-window dressing
-properly ENFORCED
How does a code in one environment influence behavior in another?
Interaction between organizational code and school code, such that THE PRESENCE OF BOTH equaled the lowest level of unethical behavior (McCabe, 1996)
The goal of ethics programs is what?
To control the behavior of employees
In an ethics program the role of a code is only one component. Formal ethics programs have control systems that consider two dimensions. What are they? Define.
1. Scope: The number of elements to consider. The more components the greater the scope. Describes how extensive the system is.

2. Orientation: Value (focus on underlying values of organization, encourages employee to internalize values) vs. compliance (because the organization requires it, it's the bare minimum).
Who is important in order to predict the scope and orientation of ethics programs? What kind of qualities do they need?
Top management with strong commitment associated with value orientation (not just awareness and behavior, but also to seek advice and commitment).
Relate the Greenberg study to the effects of ethics programs.
In the Greenberg study:
-@ preconventional level, ethics programs have no effect
-@conventional level, ethics programs have an effect
Does rewarding ethical behavior encourage greater ethical behavior? Does punishing unethical behavior discourage unethical behavior?

1. For example, adults donate less blood when compensated with money (though those below the age of 20 donate more).
2. For example, even though a company punishes unethical behavior, since you are working for the good of the company (profits), you are more likely to do unethical things in order to achieve that goal, i.e. you shift your decision frame.
For ethical behavior, justice is what? What theories or studies apply to justice?
- single most powerful influence; perceptions of injustice can lead to negative outcomes
- Adam's Equity Theory: employees feel under rewarded
- Greenberg Study: Employees want to be treated fairly
Exposure to behavior can influence others' behavior in what three ways?
1. Change ESTIMATE OF LIKELIHOOD of being caught
3 Change UNDERSTANDING of what's ACCEPTABLE. The stronger the identification with actor, the higher the likelihood of it being adopted.
If an in-group member is cheating there is a ___ level of cheating. If an out-group member is cheating or present, there is a ___ level of cheating in-group.
higher, lower
There are two different perspectives on leadership. What are they? Explain.
1.Competency perspective: the combination of personal characteristics, traits, and competencies make leaders. Some traits are important (self-esteem and confidence).

Contingency perspective: situations make leaders.
A leader can affect the ___, ____, and ____ of a group in different ways. What are they?

A person may perform these ways by adopting a certain leadership style. Name 4 leadership styles.

What is this entire theory called? Who wrote it?

1. Offering REWARDS for perofrmance goals
2. Clarifying PATHS TOWARDS these goals
3. REMOVING OBSTACLES to performance

Leadership styles:
1. directive (task): specific advice, structure
2. supportive(relationship): relations, sensitivity
3. participative (consult/group): consultation, info shared
4. achievement-oriented (demanding and supporting): set goals, high performance, confidence

path-goal leadership theory, House
What is criticism?
Dismisses individual differences, not all employees will respond in the same manner to the same behavior (diff. responses for diff. individuals)
What is locus of control? What are the two types?

internal: actions determine rewards
external: own behavior doesn't matter much, rewards outside of control
What are two perspectives on leadership? Detail further.
Transactional: consequence-response (Skinner's conditioning perspective); all interactions are treated as transactions

Transformational: RAISES aspirations of followers, goals of leader/follower fuse and fosters moral VALUES, encourages moral BEHAVIOR, fosters an ethical CONTEXT, and develops followers into moral leaders
The transformational perspective on leadership is defined by four components.
Intellectual Simulation: question assumptions, think out of the box

Inspirational Motivation: motivates pursuit of high goals beyond self-interest

Idealized Influence: reflects values/beliefs

Individual Consideration: socio-emotional support
What are the four differences between a charismatic leader and a transformational leader?
-Vision: self vs. others
-Weaken vs. strengthen followers
-High emotions vs. possible
- Creates/satisfies needs vs. questions needs, drive up, and satisfies
People often depend on each other to achieve both their ___ and ___ goals.

How do we minimize risk (in context of relationships)?
Personal, organizational

Rely on TRUST.
As distances increases, ___ relationships are often ___.

How does diversity relate to the importance of trust?
impersonal, lost

People who are similar to each other tend to like each other and there is an enhancement of trust. When heterogeneity increases, there is no longer an ability to find similarity and engage in trusting relationship
What is the definition of trust?

Risk is ___ to trust.
Willingness of A to be vulnerable to the actions of B with the expectation that B will perform some outcome of interest to A.

What is trust NOT?
-confidence: do not consider alternatives if confident
-prediction: trust means that you hope for something, but it isn't predictable
Some trust more easily than others. This is called the ___ __ ___
propensity to trust

The higher this is, all else equal, the higher the trust for the trustee.
What three things influence trust in trustee?
- Ability: higher ability in a domain, higher the trust
-Benevolence: extent to which B is perceived to want to do good
- Integrity: Perceived to adhere to a set of rules
Ability, benevolence and integrity interacts with....
propensity to trust --> predicts level of trust
Trust actually means RTR or...

situation determines the ___/___ risk

level of trust determinds the ___ of risk and is a function of ____ __ ____ and ____
risk taking in a relationship


amount, propensity to trust, characteristics
Social ID Theory (2 parts)
the self is composed of many identities

self identity vs. social identity

social ID theory: differentiate
self-categorization theory: categorize self