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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

reaction series of biochemical reactions that the sperm uses to break through the zona pellucida

asexual reproduction

form of reproduction that produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent


structure formed when cells in the mammalian blastula separate into an inner and outer layer


form of asexual reproduction that results from the outgrowth of a part of a cell leading to a separation from the original animal into two individuals

bulbourethral gland

secretion that cleanses the urethra prior to ejaculation


sensory structure in females; stimulated during sexual arousal


common body opening for the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems found in non-mammals, such as birds


various means used to prevent pregnancy; also known as birth control


reproductive hormone in females that assists in endometrial regrowth, ovulation, and calcium absorption

external fertilization

fertilization of egg by sperm outside animal body, often during spawning


method by which multicellular organisms increase in size or asexual reproduction in which a unicellular organism splits into two separate organisms by mitosis; also known as binary fission

follicle stimulating hormone

reproductive hormone that causes sperm production in men and follicle development in women; also known as FSH


cutting or fragmenting of the original animal into parts and the growth of a separate animal from each part


process in which the blastula folds over itself to form the three germ layers


length of time for fetal development to birth

gonadotropin-releasing hormone

hormone from the hypothalamus that causes the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary; also known as GnRH


state of having both male and female reproductive parts within the same individual


complete cleavage; takes place in cells with a small amount of yolk

human beta chorionic gonadotropin

hormone produced by the chorion of the zygote that helps to maintain the corpus luteum and elevated levels of progesterone; also known as β-HCG


inability to conceive, carry, and deliver children


hormone made by Sertoli cells; provides negative feedback to hypothalamus in control of FSH and GnRH release

inner cell mass

inner layer of cells in the blastocyst

internal fertilization

fertilization of egg by sperm inside the body of the female

labia majora

large folds of tissue covering the inguinal area

labia minora

smaller folds of tissue within the labia majora

luteinizing hormone

reproductive hormone in both men and women, causes testosterone production in men and ovulation and lactation in women; also known as LH


loss of reproductive capacity in women due to decreased sensitivity of the ovaries to FSH and LH

menstrual cycle

cycle of the degradation and re-growth of the endometrium


partial cleavage; takes place in cells with a large amount of yolk

morning sickness

condition in the mother during the first trimester; includes feelings of nausea

neural tube

tube-like structure that forms from the ectoderm and gives rise to the brain and spinal cord


process of producing haploid eggs


process of organ formation

ovarian cycle

cycle of preparation of egg for ovulation and the conversion of the follicle to the corpus luteum


muscular tube connecting the uterus with the ovary area; also known as fallopian tube


process by which fertilized eggs are laid outside the female’s body and develop there, receiving nourishment from the yolk that is a part of the egg


process by which fertilized eggs are retained within the female; the embryo obtains its nourishment from the egg’s yolk and the young are fully developed when they are hatched


release of the egg by the most mature follicle


form of asexual reproduction where an egg develops into a complete individual without being fertilized


male reproductive structure for urine elimination and copulation


organ that supports the diffusion of nutrients and waste between the mother’s and fetus’ blood


condition in which one egg is fertilized by multiple sperm


reproductive hormone in women; assists in endometrial re-growth and inhibition of FSH and LH release

prostate gland

structure that is a mixture of smooth muscle and glandular material and that contributes to semen


sac containing testes; exterior to the body

semen fluid

mixture of sperm and supporting materials

seminal vesicle

secretory accessory gland in males; contributes to semen

seminiferous tubule

site of sperm production in testes

Sertoli cell

cell in seminiferous tubules that assists developing sperm and makes inhibin

sexual reproduction

mixing of genetic material from two individuals to produce genetically unique offspring


group of cells separated by small spaces that form from the mesoderm and give rise to connective tissue


specialized sac that stores sperm for later use


pair of reproductive organs in males


reproductive hormone in men that assists in sperm production and promoting secondary sexual characteristics


outer layer of cells in the blastocyst


environment for developing embryo and fetus


muscular tube for the passage of menstrual flow, copulation, and birth of offspring


process in which the young develop within the female, receiving nourishment from the mother’s blood through a placenta

zona pellucida

protective layer of glycoproteins on the mammalian egg


process of producing haploid sperm

interstitial cell of Leydig

cell in seminiferous tubules that makes testosterone